the decline of the ottoman empire essay

Since it was bound to collapse sooner or later, he wanted to be sure that Russia would be in a position to maximize its share of the spoils. After a while they got regular salaries and they acted as garrison troops. But external reasons were far more dramatic and serious in contributing the fall of the Empire. Towards the mid 19th century, the main cause of the problem had already been revealed and mechanisms were put in place by the new rulers to save the empire. The leased land was passed along from generation to generation. This devilish practice was later removed and replaced by making the eldest son the heir and he should be kept insulated in a lavish imprisonment. The Ottoman Empire at the period had four layers- the mullahs, the army, the farmers and the merchants. This institution came from the practice by ottomans leaders in Anatolia of hiring prisoners as troops. Under the ruling class were the merchant class, which had a largely free form of government taxation and regulation. It was the part of the political movement called Pan-Slavic movement, which was aiming to unite all Slavic nations (most of which were under Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire control) into the one political unity under Russias protection. The final groups were the pastoral people. Suleyman the Magnificent (1494-1566) the greatest ruler of the empire expanded the empire to its greatest extent; at that time it reached from the Near East west to the Balkans and south to North Africa.

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The economic crisis as a result of the increased supply of gold and silver from the newly discovered lands in America and Africa and technical backwardness led to the empire decline. It is essential to mention that in the beginning of the 16th century Ottoman Empire was one of the greatest world empires, was ruled by the sultan, who was also commanding the military. The economic problem was made worse by the change in the agrarian systems which resulted in declining agricultural productivity (Lewis, p 120). Crimean War of was the first major Ottoman War and it was brought with Russia. Ottoman Law The legal system approved in the Ottoman law was the religious law over its subjects. But it is important to mention that Russians hadnt received control over Istanbul and Dardanelles.

The most striking effect of the the decline of the ottoman empire essay government collapse was the declining military power of the, ottoman, empire. The Ulama helped the sultan by watching and accepting his actions under the Islamic law. On the other side, Ottomans were strangle discouraged by dependency on European powers, old military state and overall situation in the Empire. He was, however, quite convinced that the Ottoman Empire was so inherently corrupt that it was beyond salvation. (The Unpredictable Past History Review, (2005) Lewis, Bernard: Some Reflections on the Decline of the Ottoman Empire, Studia Islamica,. The decline which started in the second half of the 19th century is believed to have been as a result of conflicting political and social aspect in the empire as well as the economic situation of the empire. Retrieved 22:31, May 22, 2019, from. Role of European Powers in Contributing Weakness of the Ottoman Empire. He was fond of physical pleasures rather than taking the governing responsibility seriously.

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The largest group in the Ottoman Empire was the peasant class. As Russia was very interested in Ottoman strategic territories, it joined the rebellion and declared the war against Ottomans. The, ottoman army lost the morale as well as courage which resulted into series of defeats. One of the major reasons that caused the fall of the empire is conservativism as opposed to nationalism (Jaschke, p 12). While the then flourishing European nations had embraced the idea of a nation state, the Balkans had no idea of its benefit. During the conquest of the Balkans they took slaves which later became slaves of the sultan. Our PhD and Masters degree holding academic experts will write a high-quality custom essay, term paper or research paper on any topic and subject. Although there were attempts by Sultan Selim to revive the weak military, the Ottoman military was unable to resist the attack by the Egyptians. Essay, next PostRadio Advertising x, would you like to get a custom essay? The better troops were enrolled in the palace corps, trained to become officials in the Ruling Institution. Muslims had always been world traders, and after that, other countries were sailing other ways leaving Muslims without profits. The Artisans were a separate class; they organized themselves according to guilds.

Because the brothers of the Sultans were restricted in the harem, they became incompetent. Get help with your essay today from our professional essay writers! The rest were taught military education and later became part of the janissary army. Sultans government at that time sold the task of collecting taxes, and since then it was tax collector who decided who much tax should be paid. Over periods of time the sultanate weakened gradually. However, as the Ottomans moved further into the west and the incorporation of the Balkan and Greek populations progressed, the Turkish and Arabic-Persian-Greek influenced culture of its leaders, the decline of the ottoman empire essay for itself to absorbed some of the culture of the conquered peoples. M, (December 31, 1969). Since the 16th century, the army had become weak and the expansion of the empire was limited by Persian Empire and the Portuguese to the east and the Russian on the other side. Contribution of European Powers to the Weakness of the Ottoman Empire. So, it becomes clear that in 16-17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire was losing its power and laid the foundation to the further decline and consequent fall. How about receiving a customized one? APA, mLA, chicago, the decline of the, ottoman, mughal, and Safavid empires.

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But it was the end of the capturing Ottoman territories. Ottomans had different court systems: One for non-Muslims which appointed Jews and Christians to rule over their religious communities and another for Muslims, the sultan ruled these laws but he could also interfere with the court laws of non-Muslims if needed. The weakening of the empire began late in the ruling of Suleyman the Magnificent. The military was also suffering great changes. We guarantee each customer confidentiality and prompt delivery. Ottomans were not studying military craft and didnt keep up with changes in weapon, believing that Gods power would be their greatest weapon and protection in battles. Fighting a rear-guard battle against nationalist independence movements within its borders and European imperial ambition from without them, the Empire had, by the turn of the century, one trump card.

Finally, as a result of the European conflict and the Versailles Treaty of 1919, Ottoman Empire lost all their territories in Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine. I will explain how European powers, wars and expansion contributed in the weakness of the powerful Empire and in the conclusion I will summarize all important issues regarding the contribution. But a series of internal and external influences made the power of Ottomans to substantially decrease. Slavic people who were living in Bosnia and Herzegovina started the rebellion against Ottoman powers to gain independence and freedom. Italian side was very much afraid that France could attack the Ottoman Empire, and as a result attacked first. Get help with your essay today, from our professional essay writers! Qualified writers in the subject of history are ready and waiting to help you with your studies. This was followed by the defeat by the Egyptians and the Russian (Johnson, p 3). Ottoman Empire, to explanation why its powers were declining, as well as drawing weak and strong sides. It also afforded significant opportunities for the marketing of British manufactured goods because of the preferential customs duties provided for under the Capitulations agreement. Although there are a few recorded primary sources of data that can be used to explain the causes of the declining. The result of those events was constant weakening of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent loss of the Empire and dynasty itself. The internally developed social, political and military changes which were imported from the other European countries by default led to the establishment of the New Ottomans.

Suleyman ruled with self-respect and fairness according to the, ottoman political theory. The incompetent and weak rulers led to poor leadership, corruption, unhealthy bureaucracies and in the long run decline in the empire. Economic factors also played a major role in the decline of the empire. This was the general desire of the European Powers for it to survive as a political entity, for its total the decline of the ottoman empire essay disintegration was a worse alternative. It had many great leaders and each brought great changes through their reigns in the empire.

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This is not an example of the work produced by our. Islam in the Ottoman Empire When the Ottomans conquered Medina and Mecca, the Empire achieved speculative leadership privileges over mostly all the Muslim Sunni states. T can write a Custom Essay on The Ottoman Empire for You! The change of trade routes to Asia as a result was a big blow to the economy of the empire. This did not put the Sultan above law instead he was chosen as the keeper of a lawful government and fair e Sultan was given the title of Caliph as well, meaning the supreme leader of Islam. Conclusion, in the conclusion I would like to say that territories and the power of Ottoman Empire were huge and overwhelming.

But before the ultimate decline of Ottoman strength, there was still one more last victory in the Ottoman history for the Bulgarian territories. Although the empire began to slowly shrink after Suleyman, it persisted until overthrown in the early twentieth century. Power in the Ottoman Empire revolved around the administration of the rights to land, which gave space for local authority to develop local crops. They were known to be the best and most effective soldiers of Europe. Suleyman called was now called The Magnificent for his numerous achievements and was also named the Law-Giver for the laws he established as he conquered many cities. There was a powerful influence from the languages and customs ofIslamicsocieties. Initially, the empire benefited from the strategic location where merchant ships from other parts of Europe in the Red Sea ports. After him the decline of the Sultanate continued. The internal forces that contributed to the weakness of the Ottoman Empire were poor political governance of the Empire, weak military forces, under-developed economy and narrow-minded political authorities that were not willing to use world experiences and approaches. Added to this problem was the major factor which was the change in the balance of power. Free essay papers, example essays and essay samples.

the decline of the ottoman empire essay

As wars and military expansion were the only source of wealth for the Empire for many years, rulers started to demand more taxes from merchants and entrepreneurs in order not to feel the lack of means for luxury life of authorities. Army and Military ranks of the Ottoman Empire The Cavalry: Until the mid of the 18th century the spihai cavalry formed the most of the Ottoman armies, Numbered around fourty thousand men half of them were from European provinces. And finally in the 1854 it appeared to be near the Black Sea. The Empire always planned around a system of jurisprudence (the science of philosophy and law). Russia feared Germany and Austria, which were against Russia controlling Eastern Europe. For the previous two centuries, Russia was slowly, but constantly annexing Muslim states in Central Asia.

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The attempt by the nationalist sultan to modernize the military to fit the western style was faced with opposition from the conservative Islam clergy which led to the Balkan uprisings. Conclusion As stated above, the Ottoman Empire was the greatest and one of many empires that still leads influence and remembrance throughout history. There was a theocratic order in the empire and sultans were striving to the Islam advance through military means. Gradually, Ottoman Empire was becoming weaker and weaker, by losing its power, influence and territories. Spihais lived in a village, work their own lands, and pay the peasants for most of their services and gained no salary. Spread over a vast area stretching from the borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the west to the Russian Empire, Persia and the Arabian peninsula in the north and east and, to the south, Egypt and north Africa, it contained. Suleyman the Magnificents reign was the main cause of the Ottomans expansion and its importance. The Ottoman Empire are easily traced by plagiarism checkers like Turnitin. 3That appeared to be very inspiring experience for Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro that were expecting to gain control over all Ottoman provinces in the northern Greece, southern European coast of the Black Sea and Thrace. But his approach to dealing with the overall Eastern Question was obviously ambivalent, primarily as a result of his basic distrust of France.

Because of this, there was always a struggle for the crown. And from the other side, Europeans were no longer envisioning Ottomans as equal rivals, but as the tool in reaching their objectives. The Ottoman Empire aimed to permit the incorporation of religious and cultural different groups. The rebellions that faced the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century changed the military orientation of the empire. "The decline of the, ottoman, mughal, and Safavid empires.". The year of 1875 was the one of starting great rebellions. The resulting uprisings as the Serbs revolted against the mistreatment by the traditional military and political class and fought for their autonomy in the early 19th century, the empire became weak as other European societies developed. m, ml (accessed May 22, 2019). In the early 16th century world trade was moved from the Mediterranean Sea and from the routes between East and West, because of the piratical violence that flourished in those sea territories and significantly hurt economies connected with trade.

Even though many European countries were in some way contributing to the weakness of Ottomans, Russia was the most successful force. Rise of Ottomans, the, ottoman, empire conquered and expanded under its Sultan Selim I, who ruled from (1512 to1520). Once a successor was crowned, the other contenders were killed to eliminate any future competition as well as to have full control and restore order. There also no export of goods in the Empire and the economy suffered big losses. All online essay examples are plagiarized. The main source of wealth had been loot from conquests. Unfortunately the Ottoman Empire dealt with bad economic outcomes and fail leadership of its sultanate which caused its fall and collapse. These salves were Christian but were brought up as Muslims and were devoted to loyalty the sultan and islam. Ottoman Society Five classes were divided among the people of the Ottoman Empire : First, was the ruling class, all of who were linked to the sultan. Although he was the height of the Golden Age, Suleyman became less concerned with the affairs of state added to that his two qualified successors went against him, they were later executed. Britain had the following interests in Ottoman Empire that they were willing to protect: From the British standpoint, the preservation of the integrity of the empire served to help maintain the balance of power in Europe.

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Most of the history of this empire lies on the achievements around this one ruler who was high minded and had lots of dignity and pride. So, Ottoman Empire was not striving towards modernization and obtaining new knowledge holding to religious traditions. The increased supply of precious metals in Europe from the New World had devastating effect on the empire which was ruled by Sultans with limited financial knowledge. But primarily it had important consequences for the Ottoman Empire, as it realized itself being tightly controlled by European powers. Feel free to place a free inquiry at our website to make sure that we will be able to write the decline of the ottoman empire essay a custom essay for you: the Ottoman Empire Essay. The Sultanate was a powerful organization where the sultan would chose a capable successor from his many sons. Ottoman society was very much concerned with its traditions, and Muslim scholars were remaining conservative, as they were sure that the Empire will keep the superiority, as said in Koran.

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The war had the the decline of the ottoman empire essay bad influence on Ottomans and they were suing for peace in 1878. There were several serious wars and rebellions which contributed to the weakness of the Ottoman Empire, bu the most crucial for Ottoman history appeared the Crimean Was in the middle of the 19th century along with Balkan wars and rebellions. In this paper is dedicated. As time passed the janissaries and their fighting methods became old-fashioned and no longer became a army that was unmatched. The main target of Russian was Constantinople (Istanbul because the control of the city would mean the control over the whole trade between Europe and Asia though the Black Sea. It was not initiated by Ottomans, but by European powers, as Russias primary interest was obtaining new territories. This led to the dismissal of the ottoman rulers by the Europeans as competent rulers who could lead the empire to modernization. The crown in the empire did not pass from father to son or to the next oldest brother but, it was given to the most worthy successor. Russians were interested in several key territories of the Empire, and the only thing that making them constrain their interests, was balance European countries. This essay will compare and contrast the change in the. Ottoman Empire between the golden age and the decline period in government and administration, military. Ottoman Empire was one of the biggest empires in history. However, the empire started to decline slowly until it disappeared due to economic and society changes.

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Retrieved "ttip Draft articles 5159" (PDF). Problem-oriented one deals with current situations that are in progress and so in need of actual solutions and predictions of outcomes. Enterprise Community Partners, Inc. Contemporary digital devices allow making videos which a person can post on a blog or on. He was appointed as the Congress president for Karachi session in the year 1931. Ottoman decline occurred due to economic difficulties, military issues, and demise of political structure (corruption in government). 20 21 In April 2016, Barack Obama visited UK, and more than 130,000 people signed a petition organised by political activism group 38 Degrees, urging Obama to stop negotiating ttip. Overview provides the context of the matter of discussion, analysis highlights what needs to be changed/solved and what theoretical premises can be applied for analysis. In this paper is dedicated. Lets view below some of the recent highlights and algorithms with method in data mining those are as follows, Recent Highlights in Data Mining: Data Mining Tools and Software, big Data Algorithm, big Data Applications.

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