The national network on pigeonpea is spread over 11 states, w i t h 17 centers besides the coordinated centers. In 1993/94, although 140 showed a distinct yield advantage over upas 120, it d i d not qualify as ESD. This phenomenon has not been re- searched, and it continues to hamper adoption. For intensively cropped agricultural areas, such as Haryana, Punjab, pigeonpea thesis and western U t t a r Pradesh, where most of the required inputs are readily available and productivity is m u c h higher than in dry areas, only extra-short. To examine farmers' field plots of ESD pigeonpea in comparison w i t h standard short-duration pigeonepa genotypes grown in the region.
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This expansion resulted directly f r o m the introduction in the mid-1970s of short-duration (SD) pigeonpea thesis varieties (130-160 days such as T 2 1, upas 120, and Prabhat, w h i c h could be accomodated in intensive cropping systems. To discuss and prioritize constraints to production and adoption of ESD pigeonpea. Page 13 in Improved varieties of pulse crops in India. The main consideration in developing extra-short-duration (ESD) genotypes was to ensure timely sowing of wheat and look for other intensive cropping systems into which pigeonpea could easily fit. In 1995, Andhra Prad- esh Agricultural University released L 84031 (Durga) for the northern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh (SZ).
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There is also a need to focus attention on grain quality parameters of SD and ESD pigeonpea. As the crop grows 3-4 m tall, it is not feasible to use insecticidal sprays where needed. (Semiformal publication.) Green,. International Pigeonpea Newsletter 13:11-13. Because the indeterminate types are so tall, insecticidal spraying is difficult and not very effective. The system is primarily oriented to subsistence and multiple crop production and ac- counts for over 90 of the pigeonpea production. A l l such varieties t e n d to mature at more or less the same t i. Cultivars of determinate and indeterminate plant types have been developed in both ESD and SD pigeonpea ; for example, in the ESD group, L 84023 and Prabhat are determinate and L 87111 is indeterminate. 3 Constraints Instability of production at a location over seasons and varying performance over locations are constraints to t h e adoption of ESD pigeonpea (Chauhan., these Proceedings). Under unprotected conditions, however, determinate types yielded.1 t ha - 1 and indeterminate types,.4 t ha -. Tomer,.S., and Ram Dhari. 8 The Research Base The Indian Institute of Pulses Research (iipr under the control of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, is the nodal center for the organization of a research program on pulse crops in the country.
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lines are generally susceptible to both waterlogging and drought. The major biotic and abiotic factors responsible for instability and reduced productivity in the Z are insect pests (Maruca testulalis, Helicoverpa armigera, and Melanagromyza sp diseases (PB and ), waterlogging, intermit- tent drought, and soil salinity. Pigeon- pea breeding. W o r k on an extra-early group (100- to 120-day duration) was launched in 1982/83, in the background of Prabhat (determinate) and Pant A 3 (semideterminate) ge- notypes. 10 Extra-short-duration Pigeonpea in Haryana omer and Ram Dhari1 Pigeonpea is a comparatively recent introduction in Haryana (except in Gurgaon and Ambala districts). T shared the enhanced germplasm of ESD pigeonpea for on-farm and on-station testing in the Z ( L 85010 and L 88009, among others). The indeterminate types tend to be taller and, it is generally believed, suffer less f r o m pod- and flower-damaging insect pests than determinate types. Nevertheless, these genotypes were widely used as parents for developing high-yielding SD genotypes. O n - f a r m adaptive research as a method of stimulating adoption should therefore f o r m an integral component of genetic enhancement research for SD and ESD pigeonpea. This is largely due to the introduction of SD genotypes in new cropping systems.
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Accordingly, ESD includes the Prabhat and Pant A 3 group, which normally matures in 115 days at Hisar and 110 days at T Asia Center. Organizing Committee Chairman ingh, iari icrisat Coordinator C Johansen Members iari Anand Kumar ovil Hayat Ram icrisa Chauhan S Pande A Ramakrishna Laxman Singh Contents Preface V The development of and adoption prospects for extra-short-duration pigeonpea, laxman Singh 1 Extra-short-duration. Presented at the Regional Workshop on Tropical Grains Legumes, 18-, University of the West Indies,. We hope this report w i l pigeonpea thesis l serve as a working document on which to base future research and development on ESD pigeonpea to make it a viable component of cropping systems in the subtropics. Objectives of t h e Pigeonpea Research P r o g r a m in Haryana Recognizing the importance of the crop, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agri- cultural University ( ), Hisar, initiated a research program on pigeonpea to - develop. 1 Haryana and Punjab and elsewhere. The Workshop was combined w i t h a monitoring tour to observe a series of on-farm evaluations of ESD pigeonpea genotypes (mainly icpl 85010) in comparison w i t h standard SD varieties, such as upas 120 and Manak. Three varieties introduced f r o m U t t a r PradeshPrabhat, upas 120, and T 21were found suitable and released in the mid-1970s for general cultiva- tion in Haryana. Pigeonpea genotype Resistance L 90002, L 90011 Sterility mosaic disease ( ) L 89020, L 88003 Fusarium w i l t and L 84023 Phytophthora blight (PB) and waterlogging L 88039, L 84023 Drought Waterlogging predisposes the plant to phytophthora. Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University has identi- fied L 85010 for double-cropping w i t h wheat in the plains areas of that state.
4 of T, I, and the Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Haryana Agricultural Univer- sity and ant University. Therefore, breed- ing efforts are under way to develop high-yielding SD and varieties, mainly by reducing the vegetative phase. Efforts continued to develop genotypes of shorter duration (140-150 days) than T 21, to fit into the wheat-based cropping systems of northern India. As artificial cross- ing is a tedious and time-con. Several new SD and ESD varieties were tested in these trials and released in the 1980s: Pusa Ageti (S 5 AL 15, AL 201, Pusa 33 (Ramanujam Pusa 84, Manak, Paras, and L 151 (Jagriti) for the. Determinate plant types generally have a short flowering period; the canopy is flat- topped, and the apical buds of the main shoots develop into inflorescences. O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Genetic E n h a n c e m e n t a n d A d o p t i o n Multidisciplinary. Indeter- minate plant types have a relatively long flowering period; apical buds remain vegeta- tive, and flowers occur in axillary racemes spread over considerable lengths of the stem.
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Extra-short-duration genotypes of pigeonpea, maturing in 110-130 days, w i t h a yield potential.5-2.0 t ha -1 and possessing resistance to the major diseases, may bring under pigeonpea about an additional.8 million hectares. The major reasons for the popularity of pigeonpea in such new areas are the attractive returns, ease of cultivation w i t h l i m i t e d inputs, and good and stable yield potential compared. The inaugural session was chaired by Dr hopra, Emeritus Scientist, and the delegates were welcomed by Dr ingh, Director,. 5 Extra-short-duration Pigeonpea in India: Research in t h e All India Coordinated Pulses Improvement Project sthana, Masood Ali, and ubey1 Introduction Pigeonpea is the second most important grain legume in India, which produces 9 1 of the world's total ( 1991). Gupta,.C., Johansen,., and Laxman Singh. N e w D e l h i 110 012 and Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: Indian Agricultural Research Institute and International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. The following genotypes w i t h a good agronomic background and resistance to diseases and abiotic stresses have been identified. At present, all genotypes grown in this region are short-duration. The opinions in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of iari or icrisat. (1991 after analyzing several years' data f r o m trials of both types of SD pigeonpea at Hisar, concluded that under insecticidal protection, determinate types had mean yields.0 t ha - 1 and indeterminate types,.9 t ha -1. The outcome of the program should be measurable in terms of a better under- standing of the ESD plant type and expanded adoption of this crop to cover.5 4 million hectares. Development of hybrid pigeonpeas.
ESD lines, by and large, are highly susceptible to the major pigeonpea diseases, phytophthora stem blight and sterility mosaic. Stable resistance for this disease is being introgressed f r o m the tertiary gene pool (Cajanus platycarpus) through embryo res- cue and tissue culture techniques. However, w i t h A p r i l - M a y irrigated sowing, pigeonpea thesis T 21 produces excessive biomass (20 t ha - 1 resulting in a l o w harvest index. A brief histori- cal background of the development of short-duration (SD) and ESD pigeonpea is given to place the issue in perspective. Are determinates inferior to indeterminates in short-duration pigeonpeas? However, the dura- t i o n of the entries contributed to the C T program was almost at par w i t h the T control, upas 120, and their yields were also not encouraging (Table 2). Kanpur, U P, India: Directorate of Pulses Research. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004, Haryana, India. Testulalis, Eucosma critica, and.