Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. Professional discussion research paper psychology and academic journals are also a great place to find materials for a critique paper. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense present that you used when when describing the research problem in your introduction. Bates College; Hess, Dean. Claim - add new information to what is already known - "we are the first to show". If you choose to combine the results section and the discussion section into a single narrative, you must be clear in how you report the information discovered and your own interpretation of each finding. Then, start creating subsections based on your literature review. Student Resources, aPA Style and Writing,. Deduction : a claim for how the results can be applied more generally.
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Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses if you do not plan to do so in the conclusion of the paper. Results can take the form of data, hypotheses, models, definitions, formulas, etc. . As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed. So as you do your research, make careful notes about each reference including the article title, authors, journal source, and what the article was about. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. Comfort and confidence in consulting with a provider for a range of medical services and comfort using telepsychiatry in different settings ranged from a little bit to moderately. This was a cross-sectional research design that relied on survey data. 1 therefore confirming the chronic nature of OCD in young people. Clarify - extend or refine what is already known - "because X, also Y" or "because X, not Y". If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance.
Relate discussion research paper psychology the Findings to Similar Studies. If not, suggest any modifications and improvements that could be made to the design. These results are inconsistent with prior research indicating that interruptions negatively affect task performance.5 There may be several explanations. Parts of the Discussion Section, addressing the Hypothesis * Did the data support your hypothesis? A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development. Finally, after saying all of this, you can make a statement about whether the experiment has contributed to knowledge in the field, or not. Do the data support an alternative theory? The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. An example would be: In the case of determining available housing to single women with children in rural areas of Texas, the findings suggest that access to good schools is important then move on to further explaining this finding and its implications. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. Thus, our diagnoses are tentative and additional research using more formal diagnostic assessments of ptsd and other psychiatric diagnoses may be warranted.
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In the current sample, telehealth PE treatment was safe and discussion research paper psychology pragmatically viable. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. Do your results agree or disagree with previous research? A Sociology Writer's Guide. University of Toronto; Sauaia,. In some cases, such as in a general psychology class, you might have had the option to select any topic from within psychology 's broad reaches. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results or used to link to similar studies. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. Organization and Structure, keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. San Francisco Edit, ; The Lab Report. Think about the overall narrative flow of your paper to determine where best to locate this information. Corroborate - support what is already known - "similar/same as to X".
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Refine.Although the efficacy of exposure-based therapies in the treatment of ptsd is well established, there has been some reluctance to use these therapies in individuals with co-occurring SUDs because of fear that evoking vivid memories of trauma exposure. If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem. Stating that the results are inconclusive is the easy way out, and you must always try to pick out something of value. Using the Discussion Section to Expand Knowledge You should always put your findings into the context of the previous research that you found during your literature review. Next, you might narrow your focus down to how persuasion can be used to influence behavior. Examples, opening Paragraph - restate RQ, then provide major result. Problems to Avoid Do not waste time restating your results. Online sources, newspaper articles, books, journal articles, and even your own class textbook are all great places to start searching for topics for your experiments and psychology term papers. What are the practical implications of your findings? You should then described each study in considerable detail. Knowing where to start the research process can make things a lot easier and less stressful. Do the results of the previous research help you to interpret your own findings? In other words, for every experimental result you want to talk about, you find results/models/conclusions from other publications bearing the relationship to your result that you want the reader to understand.
References to previous research : either compare your results with the findings from other studies or use the studies to support a claim. In this type of paper, you will provide an in depth analysis of your subject, including a thorough biography. Department of English Writing Guide. Limitations Some study limitations merit comment. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis. By lining out what you are going to write about right off the bat, you will be better able to see how one idea flows into the next and how your research supports your overall hypothesis.
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5 Draft, Revise, and Edit Stefano Gilera / Cultura Exclusive / Getty Images Once you have a solid outline, it is time to begin writing. Once writing the discussion section is complete, you can move onto the next stage, wrapping up the paper with a focused conclusion. Student literature reviews are often required to cite between 5 and 20 studies and are usually between 8 and 20 pages in length. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. The Discussion section is sort of an odd beast because it is here where you speculate, but must avoid rambling, guessing, or making logical leaps beyond what is reasonably supported for your data. . Narrowing your topic down allows you to focus your research, develop your thesis, and fully explore the pertinent findings. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a specific finding for an interpretation because it may confuse the reader. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. In fact, many professors encourage students to write case studies on historical figures or fictional characters from books, television programs, or films. Do not introduce new results in the discussion section. In some cases, your instructor might assign you a subject or at least specify an overall theme on which to focus. Additionally, our sample was predominantly Caucasian, and thus, we do not know how these results would generalize to ethnic minority groups.
Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. Hypothesis : a more general claim or possible conclusion arising from the results which may be proved or disproved in subsequent research. While this variety makes it discussion research paper psychology possible to find a topic that really catches your interest, it can sometimes make it very difficult for some students to select a good topic. Possible experiments that you might consider include: Write a Paper About a Historical Figure One of the simplest ways to find a great topic is to choose an interesting person in the history of psychology and write a paper about them. 2 Start by Selecting a Good Idea for Your Research Paper Hero Images/Getty Images Once you have decided which kind of research paper you are going to write, it is important to choose a good topic. Browse through the collection at your university library to find titles devoted to the subject that you are most interested in, then look through recent articles until you find what that grabs your attention. Whether or not this is your first research paper, the entire process can seem a bit overwhelming at first. In this critical part of the research paper, you start the process of explaining any links and correlations apparent in your data.
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Sometimes it seems like coming up with a good idea for a paper is more challenging than the actual research and writing. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or highlighting best practices. However, keep in mind that too much use of the first person can actually distract the reader from the main points.e., I know you're telling me this; just tell me! In fact, expertise with IM predicted lower scores on the comprehension test. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics. For example, you might write a critical analysis of Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams or you might evaluate a more recent book such as Philip Zimbardo's The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. A literature review involves finding a variety of sources on a particular subject, then summarizing and reporting on what these sources have to say about the topic.
Original, research or Lab Report, the first type is a report or empirical paper that details your own research that you conducted. These data are all the more encouraging in light of extant data, which suggests that attitudes toward mental health use are positively associated with actual service use (e.g., Lin and Parikh, 1999; Mackenzie., 2004). Prolonged Exposure therapy via telehealth technology was associated with large reductions in symptoms of ptsd and depression for veterans diagnosed with combat-related ptsd. University College Writing Centre. To date, there is a growing body of literature documenting the effectiveness of telehealth for a number of medical and mental health difficulties.21 There is also preliminary evidence to support the use of telehealth for ptsd among combat veterans, including high. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay.
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For example, one of your graphs may show a distinct trend, but not enough to reach an acceptable significance level. You should also evaluate and compare the discussion research paper psychology studies that you cite and then offer your discussion of the implications of the findings. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of your findings. Using first person can help emphasize a point or illustrate a contrasting finding. No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. Start by considering your own interests as well subjects you have studied in the past. Either you have uncovered something new, or you may have made a major flaw with the design of the experiment. There are a few common types of psychology papers that you might encounter. Start by noting the three most fundamental sections: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Just be sure to start early by deciding on a substantial topic, doing your research, and creating a good outline. While the introduction starts generally and narrows down to the specific hypothesis, the discussion starts with the interpretation of the results, then moves outwards to contextualize these findings in the general field. Other ideas might include: Consider a Topic Related to Human Development In this area, you might opt to focus on issues pertinent to early childhood such as language development, social learning, or childhood attachment or you might instead opt.
Some other topics you might consider include: Bullying Language acquisition Media violence and children Learning disabilities Gender roles Child abuse Prenatal development Parenting styles Aspects of the aging process Critique a Book or Academic Journal Article One option. Your paper might focus on many different elements of the individual's life, such as their biography, professional history, theories, or influence on psychology. Writing a discussion section is where you really begin to add your interpretations to the work. Treatment noncompletion rates, although higher than average for our clinic, were in the acceptable range. Remember that no significance is not the same as no difference, and you can begin to explain this in your discussion section. We found that average daily IM use was negatively related to performance on the reading comprehension test, indicating that expertise did not help participants successfully complete the task. Kendra Cherry, updated May 06, 2019, more in Student Resources, are you searching for a great topic for your psychology paper? Corroborate, there is a substantial amount of research discussion research paper psychology documenting high rates of SUD and ptsd comorbidity.11,15,16 The veteran described in this case summary is a representative example of a large subset of patients with comorbid SUD and ptsd. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have.
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Although the scale of the current situation poses challenges to discussion research paper psychology both service providers and veterans, it also presents unprecedented opportunities for scientific investigation and the continued development of evidence-based interventions for ptsd. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Other instances, such as in an abnormal psychology course, might require you to write your paper on a specific subject such as a psychological disorder. In other situations, you may actually have the opportunity to collect data, analyze your findings, and write up your results. If you are writing a psychology research paper in this form, your instructor might specify the number of studies that you need to cite as well as the length. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data either within the text or as an appendix. However, our data contradict this explanation. A Word From Verywell Writing a psychology research paper can be intimidating at first, but breaking the process up into a series of smaller steps makes it much more manageable. It is much harder to organize information and cite sources if you constantly have to look up information. Note: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section.
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Whilst your results may not be enough to reject the null hypothesis, they may show a trend that later researchers may wish to explore, perhaps by refining the experiment. So reread your introduction carefully before writing the discussion ; you discussion research paper psychology will discuss how the hypothesis has been demonstrated by the new research and then show how the field. Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay. Psychology is such a broad topic, so you want to find a topic that allows you to adequately cover the subject without becoming overwhelmed with information. In this critical part of the research paper, you start the process of explaining any links and correlations apparent in your data. If you left few interesting leads and open questions in the results section, the discussion is simply a matter of building upon those and expanding them. There are a few psychology papers which you might come across in your studies. Empirical paper, this details own research. The format of the paper follows the APA format including the title page, abstract, introduction, method analysis section, discussion section and references. The second type of paper is a literature review that summarizes the research conducted by other people on a particular topic. If you are writing a psychology research paper in this form, your instructor might specify the number of studies that you need to cite as well as the length.
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