Org Arizona Archives Online ml Online Archive of New Mexico elibrary. Archivists and librarians need to accelerate the essays on nagpra acceptance of different approaches to designing and deploying knowledge management systems and to welcome Native American practitioners as equal partners in caring for cultural heritage. . Kim Lawson (Heiltsuk Nation) Native American communities and collecting institutions share a desire to preserve cultural heritage and to serve as a bridge between the past, present, and future. . Appropriate personnel will appreciate being included in external discussions with mainstream archives and libraries. When the latter are repatriated through federal law and revert to the control of a Native American community, a collecting institution should also consider transferring primary physical ownership and all copyright or literary rights for those archived materials. See: National Park Service, nagpra.gov/nagpra Evaluate institutional holdings and if a Native American collection is out of scope, transfer the collection to the community or the closest archives at the tribe or bands request. Another exciting possibility is the emergence of new virtual reality technology and 3D printing. Offer comparable arrangements and agreements regarding access and use to all communities. Collecting institutions also wish to share as much context as possible to enhance the value of resources for patrons. .
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The Protocols for Native American Archival Materials are intended to assist in answering these questions. . However, differences exist in values, culture, knowledge systems, and approaches to learning. . Intellectual (Intangible) property Personal property, including Native American cultural heritage, that could be subject to copyright, patents, trademarks, franchise agreement, business goodwill, and droit de suite. Use the model summary or inventory letters required by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990, with a follow-up telephone call. . No single English word has the range of meanings associated with this kind of information of knowledge as it is meant in communities, and different communities may also have different perspectives on this. 21 (6) 1998. As Sven Haakanson,., (Alutiiq/Sugpiaq) reinforces. These include the repatriation of ancestral remains of Ngarrindjeri and other people of South Australia, in a moving ceremony conducted by Aboriginal Elder Major Sumner. Repatriation of objects is difficult because museums are nothing without their essays on nagpra collections. Weeks, months, or longer may be required to gain an understanding of Native American perspectives on issues and to work through solutions and approaches to problems, in consultation with communities. Appreciate that in most instances it will take years for institutions and staff to develop essential trust relationships with a community. . They have been contested ever since.
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Culturally Sensitive Materials Most archives and libraries hold information of a confidential, sensitive, or sacred nature. . Using the latest innovative technologies, we predict museums will have the opportunity to either offer virtual repatriations, or to hold on to the virtual object and repatriate the original. New issues for consideration will undoubtedly arise as the best practices are debated and implemented. . While you are using the web to analyze your fan base and gain revenue, some have made it that much more difficult for you to do so because they are leaking your music free of charge to the public. Collecting institutions and Native communities are encouraged to build relationships to ensure the respectful care and use of archival material. . Support Native American students in education and training programsfrom recruitment to mentoring and study leave. Native American communities guidelines for action: Provide reviews of archival holdings in order to determine whether or not contextual issues exist in collections. Acknowledged special powers of individual and community ownership and control of cultural property, with the right to repatriate such property and human remains. The limited right of organizations, governments, and families to associate in confidence may apply to American Indian tribes who wish to minimize or prevent intrusion into their practices. Only consultations with culturally affiliated communities can determine whether or not materials in archives are there illegally or unethically. Native American communities guidelines for action: Publicize who may speak for them, by informing archives and libraries of the individuals who will act as community representatives for these matters,.e.
Native American Intellectual Property Issues We belong to the property; it doesnt belong. . The recent emergence of online exhibitions and virtual collections has meant that museums have become more accessible. Other institutions have comparable policies; some institutions will not provide any access without prior written community authorization. Underhill Head, Special Collections and Archives Northern Arizona University Cline Library Preamble These Protocols are presented to guide libraries and archives in engaging in culturally responsive care of Native American archival materials and in providing culturally appropriate service to communities. . Inform patrons, at the request of a community, of potentially offensive content prior to use by adding a notice to descriptive tools or items such as The tribal name finds information in this work inaccurate or disrespectful. . Sacred Objects and Sacred Places: Preserving Tribal Traditions Boulder: University of Colorado, 2000 Hendry, Joy. Collapse boundaries between libraries, archives, and cultural organizations to further life-long learning and better connect people to the human experience. The proposed standards and goals articulated.
Librarians and archivists should be aware that each tribe, band, and community is unique. . But for countless Australian Aboriginal families, its not voluntary service or even conscription that led to their ancestors remains ending up overseas. A community will often endorse a project which complies with tribal guidelines. Some of the material in collections were simply stolen, others traded, some were offered for sale, and some were taken in the aftermath of violence, even massacres. Some documentary collections may need to be kept together based on content, rather than segregated by format as often occurs in archival facilities, or have access restrictions based on a variety of culturally appropriate considerations. Tribal groups have societies, bands, and clans that may be privileged vis-à-vis information. . Arrange for reciprocal visits to weave a stronger community fabric and establish long-term trust relationships. . Its a whole system of a way of life. .
Protocols for Native American Archival Materials
What if I cant do that! Caring for American Indian Objects: A Practical and Cultural Guide Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2004 Oral History Association Evaluation Guidelines ml Patterson, Lotsee. Repatriate original records when the records have been obtained through theft or deception and/or the collecting institution cannot prove right of possession Replevin, an action by the legal authority to recover records, may also apply. . (See the list of information that is potentially cultural sensitive.) Memorandum of Agreement A formal written document between two parties (a Native American community and a collecting institution) which may or may not be binding regarding a course of action or activities. Will the information be presented with sufficient context? Some institutions have voluntarily, in the spirit of nagpra, offered to repatriate culturally sensitive archival materials as sacred and/or patrimonial objects, including images and recordings. Insist on cross-cultural training in information science programs and courses at all levels. All parties are encouraged to keep in mind the power of building relationships of mutual respect between collecting institutions and communities and the advantages to be derived from balancing different approaches to the collection, preservation, and transmission of knowledge. .
Museums are returning indigenous human remains but
Walele Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde/Chinook Archivist.S. How should the needs of North American Indian tribes be balanced with a democratic society as a whole? Appreciate that discussing property in Native American communities can be antagonistic from the perspective of community membersbased on the Western legal interpretation that only one person or entity can own. Repatriation In the United States, the transfer of all legal rights to and physical custody of Native American cultural materials to lineal descendants, culturally affiliated Indian tribes, and Native Hawaiian organizations. Advantages, more and more recording companies or artists themselves decide to make money by selling their singles online, as we know iTunes has proven to be the right way to go when selling more single or albums for artists digitally. Most Native American communities have federal recognition, while others hold state recognition. . Many of the contemporary information resources about a community will arrive in written as well as aural or visual recording formats. A territory existing as a separate state. 4 Examples of the kinds of archival materialsboth human readable and digitalwhich may be culturally sensitive from a Native American perspective include: Still and Moving Images (Photographs and Films Graphic Art human remains religious or sacred objects ceremonies of any kind burials. 27 (2) 2002 Copyright Basics (pyright Office) pyright.
The 1970 unesco Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property Article 1(j) states that cultural property includes "archives, including sound, photographic, and cinematographic archives." This Convention urges. At the request of a Native American community, avoid artificially prolonging the life cycle of sensitive documentary material. . The ceremonial stone - tjuringa - that had been in a Seattle museums collections since 1971 is repatriated to Australia in 2009. Appreciate that individuals are recognized within a tribal society as caretakers and knowledge workers. . Access is still provided onsite. . Org Greaves, Tom,. Respect and act on both Native American as well as Western approaches to caring for archival collections. . It often includes property and knowledge that is not intended to be shared outside the community of origin or outside of specific groups within a community.
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Endorse partner collecting institutions; that is, establish formal relationships through memoranda of agreement with archives or libraries and recognize those partnerships publicly. Is the initial reaction? . Issues in the collection, ownership, preservation, handling, access, and use of American Indian archival resources. Archives and libraries guidelines for action: Recognize that the conditions under which knowledge can be ethically and legally acquired, archived, preserved, accessed, published, or otherwise used change through time. . For Native American communities the public release of or access to specialized information or knowledgegathered with and without informed consentcan cause irreparable harm. Back in the days people used to fall in love with a song they heard on radio essays on nagpra and all they had to do was buy the whole entire album to listen to that one track again and some might not even like the album. Respond to requests for assistance from tribal archives, libraries, and cultural organizations. An individual, agency, or institution that claims right of possession should be able to provide evidence that the prior Native American owners and the appropriate authority voluntarily agreed to the transfer of ownership. Institutions and communities benefit when research is conducted in accordance with the highest possible ethical and legal standards. . Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Populations and the 1993 The Mataatua Declaration on Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognize a fundamental right to protect traditional knowledge. Consider joining regional and national library and archives networks that offer opportunities for sharing resources, problem-solving, and cross-cultural training. Consultation may involve more than one person. . Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples London: Zed Books Ltd, 1999 unesco. .
The source of tension has been and remains the manner in which museums are perceived as experts and authorities on indigenous cultures. As a professional courtesy, also contact the communitys cultural center, library, or archives and/or the cultural preservation office. . Encourage patrons doing research on Native American cultures to inform the relevant community of their research and direct researchers to community protocols so that they may understand tribal concerns. . Review acquisition policies and forms with Native American community representatives in order to share suggestions for culturally responsive restrictions on deeds of gifts with potential donors. Brief Glossary of Terms Cultural patrimony Any property (tangible or intangible) that is owned by a community as a whole, or by a group which holds such property in trust for the community, is inalienable except by community consent. And sending back human remains, many of which are rarely shown, is an easier option. These are exciting possibilities, but they will not satisfy everyone. Require researchers and collection sources to provide copies of any initial research contracts, agreements, or other comparable documents between themselves and a Native American community that pertain to the collection. This document may be distributed for the noncommercial purpose of discussion. . The paths that indigenous objects travelled as they entered into the collections of Britain, Europe and North America are varied. First Last, company email phone, logo File, accepted file types: jpg, png. Many museums are attempting to decolonise. Download Protocols pdf for printing, view Executive Summary (Precis) 4/9/07 rstarchivistcircle.
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Consult Art and Museum Law (Robert. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2002 or the Model Law for the Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Innovations, and Practices. While its a wonderful thing to allow your fans access to your downloads online, the biggest disadvantage has been illegal downloads. These rights apply to issues of collection, preservation, access, and use of or restrictions to these materials. Pdf National Directory of Tribal Archives, Libraries and Museums tml American Indian Resource Directory ml National Association of Tribal Historic Preservation Officers thpo. We (my people-Onkwehonwe) belong to our land, our medicines, our communities, our philosophies, and our way of life. . Protocols for Native American Archival Materials are meant to inspire and to foster mutual respect and reciprocity. . In the United States, for instance, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (nagpra), which became law over 15 years ago, ensures the return of cultural items to lineal descendants and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organisations. Conduct research to establish which archival collections were acquired without right of possession. Review research protocols with archival or library staff. 7 In the United States, a network of laws addresses cultural heritage protection, notably the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act and the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (nagpra). Native American communities guidelines for action : Provide in-depth consultation and review of archival collections in order to establish which materials may have been acquired inappropriately or require special conditions for handling, access, and use.
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Native American communities guidelines for action: Provide archives and libraries with copies of their research protocols. Archives and libraries guidelines for action: Consult with Native American communities regarding research protocols and adhere to existing community research and cultural property protocols, as related to archival and documentary materials. Accessibility and Use Native American requests for increased access essays on nagpra to and sometimes control over information resources found in non-tribal collecting institutions is in keeping with current professional codes of ethics. . Native Hawaiians are accorded special status by both federal law and state law. . Non-tribal archivists and librarians should also remember the unique status of Native American communities as sovereign governments with associated rights.
Examples include: The Knowledge River program ( izona. Edu/o/oaister/ California Digital Library lib. Respect a communitys request to restrict access to and use of materials that describe and represent esoteric, ceremonial, or religious knowledge that is significant to the community. . ) Questions of access, ownership, and control of Native American archival material can prompt philosophical and practical concerns, particularly when there is inadequate information about community sovereignty and associated legal rights, community ownership of original source information, initial community restrictions. 5 Promote changes to established lexicons to allow retrospective conversion or enhancement of antiquated or inadequate catalog records to include contemporary, culturally responsive language. . Allow Native communities the right of first refusal for collections with strong cultural affiliation or sensitive content and act as a pass-through agency from the source to the community for such collections. Schedule, get Involved, about Us, partners, name. Participate in knowledge repatriation. .