autophagy research paper

Her daughter, unfortunately, carries the mutant huntingtin chromosome, however at the moment shes entirely normal; shes a Cambridge graduate and an Olympic athlete , so shes actually a bit more than normal. I like to make the analogy that one might be able to consider treating with autophagy upregulation is similar to treating high blood cholesterol levels with statins. One of our key objectives is to see how we can find ways to buy this young lady as many years of normal disease-free life as possible, so can we find ways of delaying the onset of the disease. Empty GFP doesnt bind, 35 binds, and 81 binds more strongly. So we have a function for wild-type polyglutamine tracts in at least one of these proteins. And we showed that rapamycins increased the clearance of mutant huntingtin in cells of Drosophila, subsequently zebrafish and mouse models, and they decreased toxicity as a function of reducing the accumulation of the toxic proteins. These form more or less randomly in the cytoplasm of most mammalian cells, although this process is more polarized in neurons.

Disturbed waste disposal in leukemia cells Leukemia

This experiment now makes, I think, quite an important point, and weve done it again just with the 35-glutamines attached to GFP that dont form aggregates. This lady has Huntingtons disease, and this is her daughter. Abstract: Intracellular protein aggregation is a feature of many late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons disease, tauopathies, and polyglutamine expansion diseases (like Huntingtons disease (HD). I think its important to stress that the mechanism we were proposing for the polyglutamine toxicity is almost independent of the protein that is hosting the polyglutamine expansion almost. When we started working on this problem, we thought about the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. But if you take the cells overexpressing the 35-glutamines and you simultaneously overexpress wild-type ataxin-3, then the situation is rescued; Beclin 1 is normalized and LC3-II is normalized. Indeed, our data suggest that most of the membrane of the autophagosome actually evolves from a portion of the recycling endosomes. These have been validated by both crispr knockout and biological validation strategies, and across a wide range of applications. Several more recent primary publications include in Molecular Cell, available here: (Jia., 2018) (Chauhan., 2015) m/molecular-cell/abstract/S ; in embo J, available here: (Dupont., embo J 2011) and here (Kimura., embo. Can you just give some general comments about the current progress of some of the trials youve done in Cambridge; a lot of the drugs are modulating autophagy, whats the general situation right now for treating neurodegenerative diseases?


Following lysosomal damage, galtor inhibits mTOR causing its dissociation from damaged lysosomes. Thats one of our major objectives over the last two decades or so is to see if we can find ways of enhancing the clearance of the mutant protein relative to the wild-type counterpart. Rubinsztein : So, I think thats a complicated question, because many of the examples I gave you in Parkinsons disease described monogenic forms of the disease which might, in some cases, affect different steps of the pathway. Recycling by self-eating, the word autophagy is derived from Greek and means self-eating. This is a rather busy slide that illustrates some of the diseases weve worked on in my lab where weve identified impaired autophagy as a consequence of the genetic lesion, or the chemical lesion in one case. Plos ONE and, pLOS Biology are happy to announce a call for papers on the subject of Autophagy and Proteostasis. It might have some regulatory effect, but it doesnt significantly impede the wild-type polyglutamine stretch. The first is that Im keen on the idea that autophagy upregulation might be a rational therapeutic strategy for many neurodegenerative diseases by removing toxic intracytoplasmic autophagy research paper aggregate-prone proteins. We have some diseases in blue where theres a deficit in the generation of autophagosomes, we have some diseases in red where the autophagosomes are made normally but are trafficked to the part of the cell where the lysosomes are. At the time we did the experiments, the only drugs we knew about that were used chronically in people that were predicted to induce autophagy were rapamycins that act by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin complex.


Additionally, it has been shown that increased levels of alfy in these flies can prevent the accumulation of misfolded proteins. And Id just like to wish everyone a great day and thank you very much. More recent studies. Click on the key targets and interactive pathway to discover available products. In the situation with Huntingtons disease, this happens when you have 38 or more uninterrupted glutamines. Among these, trim16 has been proposed to play a role of the first selective secretory autophagy receptor. A question about how will it be possible to target autophagy in diseases where there are multiple steps that are affected, such as Parkinsons? University of Texas, University of Michigan, and joined University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, in 2001. The reason weve worked so much on trying to understand how autophagosomes are formed is that in the early years of the century our laboratory discovered that autophagosomes were important rubbish tracts in the cells for getting rid of aggregate-prone proteins.


Kaup Mandal, autophagy, apoptosis

Indeed, the most common neurodegenerative diseases of childhood are lysosomal storage diseases which fit into this category. Journal of Cell Science. And if you take the ataxin-3 knockdown cells and reconstitute them with wild-type ataxin-3, then you can rescue the Beclin levels to normality. This is a simplified diagram showing the biogenesis of these different PI(3)Ps and PI(5)Ps from PI so this is PI(3)P, this is PI(5)P and this shows that both can be found on the same membranes. And again if youve got cells overexpressing mutant huntingtin, then you get a dramatic decrease in the number of cells that have aggregates when you impair these enzymes, and you dont see any such effect in autophagy-null cells. "trims and Galectins Globally Cooperate and trim16 and Galectin-3 Co-direct Autophagy in Endomembrane Damage Homeostasis". And these benefits can be mediated by perturbing the mammalian target of rapamycin, but also by impairing or modulating the activities of a range of mTOR-independent pathways. Chan : Terrific, thank you very much. Potentially, one might be able to have a neurostatin analogy where autophagy is reducing the levels of aggregate-prone proteins in the brain in individuals from a young age, far younger than the onset of neurogenerative conditions, and. I mentioned to you earlier that the complex including VPS34 and Beclin 1 generate PI(3)P recycling endosomes, and the PI(3)P on these structures recruits proteins that dictate where and when autophagosomes are going to form. PI(3)P recruits key proteins regulating autophagosome formation, and this is its key role in the process. However, in 2004, Steve Finkbeiners lab published a very interesting paper. However, a number of studies have observed that you might be able to get autophagy in the absence of VPS34 activity or possibly PI(3)P activity, and so Mariella Vicinanza in my lab worked on the idea that there might indeed.


autophagy research paper

We thus thought that this is likely autophagy research paper due to ataxin-3 deubiquitinase activity. So the first question is if targeting autophagy in the CNS, which cell type is most targeted? Potential topics Include: Upstream events involved in initiating and regulating autophagy and proteostasis pathways, such as starvation, cellular stress or unfolded protein response including cell non-autonomous regulation of these processes. Secretory autophagy, and stimulates further work on a broad selection of substrates secreted or released from cells. In the upper right-hand corner of the screen, you will see a tab called Resources. "Autophagy is a defense mechanism inhibiting BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in infected macrophages". I like to make the analogy that these aggregate-prone proteins, these depositions, are like the rubbish accumulating when it hasnt been cleared properly in Naples. Feature number two is shown by five of the diseases, but its seen in all nine, and that is that theres an inverse relationship between the number of repeats and the age of onset of disease. So these data suggested that ataxin-3 is a deubiquitinase for Beclin 1, it thereby protects Beclin 1 from degradation and thereby protects the autophagy integrity of the cell.


International Journal of Biological Sciences

Are you ready to submit or want to learn more about how the submission process works? In normal cells the staining for PI(3)P is rather low, however if you induce autophagy by starving the cells, then the PI(3) staining becomes quite dramatic. Id like to now switch tack and discuss what happens when neuronal autophagy is impaired. This shows that we found that if you deplete PI(3)P levels in cells you impair autophagosome biogenesis, and you can rescue that defect by elevating PI(5)P levels. Importantly in these experiments, the 35-glutamines do not form visible aggregates by light microscopy. Chan : Thank you, David, for that very informative presentation. So I think at least in those models we can say that it is almost certainly working on the neurons themselves. And when one does the calculation, you can see theres significantly more rapid degradation of Beclin when you do the ataxin-3 knockdown. Deretic, V; Kimura, T; Timmins, G; Moseley, P; Chauhan, S; Mandell, M (Jan 2015). In addition, were keen to develop strategies that might ameliorate the condition in her mother.


For more information please see the. His group is one of those that autophagy research paper made the discovery 4 that autophagic degradation is a major effector of innate and possibly adaptive immunity mechanisms for direct elimination of intracellular microbes (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis 5 6 ). So in summary, our data provided normal function for the polyglutamine stretches in ataxin-3, because these mediated the interaction of ataxin-3 and Beclin 1 and allow ataxin-3 to deubiquitinate Beclin 1 and protect it from degradation, and thus enable functioning autophagy in the cells. This is the strength of the ataxin-3/Beclin interaction with GFP, with GFP with 35-glutamines, and with GFP with 81-glutamines. First, all of us have normal alleles for the genes that ultimately can become mutated, and these normal alleles will have shorter polyglutamine stretches. The most conservative interpretation of the data is that cells that dont form aggregates but express mutant huntingtin and when I say dont form aggregates, I mean do not form aggregates visible by light microscopy those cells. Rubinsztein : Well, I think the problem is if one assumes that the GBA heterozygotes have a level of lysosomal dysfunction, and I think there is a fair amount of data suggesting that is the case, then theyre not.


Autophagy, webinar with David Rubinsztein

I would just like to thank David, again, for a wonderful presentation, and thank everyone for joining us for todays webinar. Autophagy in infection, inflammation and immunity. Without alfy, our cells would not be able to clear out their own waste. Chan : Thank you, David. This slide shows RAB11A, a marker recycling endosomes, in green, and autophagosomes in red marked by LC3, and you can see significant overlap. Plos Biologys criteria or scope may be offered the opportunity to transfer. We then wanted to test whether mutant huntingtin would inhibit starvation-induced autophagy, which ends up being a particularly suitable readout for impaired VPS34 or Beclin function. And when a situation where the inclusion is larger than the diameter of an axon, it will clearly block the traffic. "Dedicated snares and specialized trim cargo receptors mediate secretory autophagy". Cellular waste management system, we can envisage the cell as a busy town, says Professor Anne Simonsen. Our idea that ataxin-3 deubiquitinase activity might be important in terms autophagy research paper of Beclin 1 regulation was strengthened when we looked at the levels of ubiquitinated Beclin.


autophagy research paper

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Novus has released three new highly specific and autophagy research paper sensitive rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Biogenesis of the autophagosomal membrane and regulators of autophagosome maturation and fusion with the lysosome. Chauhan, Santosh; Kumar, Suresh; Jain, Ashish; Ponpuak, Marisa; Mudd, Michal.; Kimura, Tomonori; Choi, Seong Won; Peters, Ryan; Mandell, Michael. We first used a model system here where we had cells that either expressed empty GFP, or GFP tagged to 35-glutamines, or GFP tagged with 81-glutamines. Pictured from left to right are: Gunnveig Toft Bjørndal, Petter Holland, Aleksander Aas, Kristiane Søreng, Christian Bindesbøll, Anne Simonsen, Serhiy Pankiv, Benan John Mathai, Pauline Isakson, Alf Håkon Lystad. He has made key contributions to illuminating the relevance of autophagy defects as a disease mechanism and to basic cell biology. I think the point you make about phagocytosis and engulfment is quite possible, and there is a form of phagocytosis called LC3-associated phagocytosis which employs many of the components of the autophagy machinery, and I think its plausible. The second is whether there are roles for the normal polyglutamine stretches in the wild-type counterparts of the disease proteins, as the polyglutamine stretches in the wild-type proteins are very well conserved across evolution. They found that if you knocked out autophagy in these neurons you got the accumulation of these inclusions that were not seen in the wild-type mice, and they found out these inclusions comprise p62, an autophagy substrate, and ubiquitin, among other proteins probably. So these are two paintings that Mariella produced to illustrate the hypothesis showing the mirror image phosphoinositides. Mechanisms involved in selective types of autophagy such as mitophagy and ER-phagy, and the cargo receptors involved to ensure specificity and exclusivity. An accumulation of this kind can lead to Alzheimers disease as well as illnesses such as Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease. We invite submissions that provide insight into the molecular and cellular machinery and mechanisms that regulate autophagy and the crosstalk with other protein quality control pathways to ensure proteostasis.


Stem cell research paper pro

Novus is an industry leader in the development of autophagy research tools. We saw similar trends in fibroblasts from a range of other polyglutamine diseases, and also saw similar trends and similar biology when we overexpressed constructs for wild-type in mutant polyglutamine proteins more or less across the group of diseases. Our research therefore focuses on the basic questions of autophagy: How is the membrane formed? Heres an experiment where we got control cells measuring Beclin, cells with ataxin-3 knockdown where Beclin levels are reduced, and you can see the Beclin levels are rescued when one treats with a proteasome inhibitor. These pathological changes give rise to the hallmark features of Huntingtons disease abnormal movements, cognitive deterioration, and psychiatric symptomatology. At the proteasome the protein needs to be deubiquitinated, unfolded, and monomeric to thread through the narrow entrance of the proteasome. And thats indeed the case, this is GFP 35- and 81-glutamines, and these are the Beclin levels. In a recent paper in Molecular Cell, 19 this group has shown that a novel system termed galtor, based on galectins, interacts with the mTOR regulatory system composed of SLC38A9, Ragulator, RagA /B, RagCD. Mariella found that both PI(5)P and PI(3)P bind wipi2, and indeed in in vitro assays we found that they both can compete for binding to wipi2 and bind to the same domain of wipi2. 9 10 A series of studies from.


How is the process regulated? I guess a question about clarifying whats the role of ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway, is it a major player in neurogenerative pathology? And in the bafilomycin A1-treated cells, you can see that the ataxin-3 knockdown dramatically reduces the amounts of LC3-II, and we can then infer that this is a consequence of decreased LC3-II biogenesis, decreased autophagosome biogenesis. So that is what the overall aim is, and I think were trying to develop drugs or repurpose drugs as well as we can to get towards that objective. Before handing over control to our speaker, I have just a few housekeeping items to address.


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I showed you data with a Q35 tract, but many of our experiments were performed under conditions where the mutant proteins we autophagy research paper were studying did not form visible aggregates by light microscopy. A b Claude-Taupin, Aurore; Jia, Jingyue; Mudd, Michal; Deretic, Vojo. These are reduced when you overexpress GFP tied to 35-glutamines; Beclin goes down and in parallel the amount of LC3-II goes down. Rubinsztein : We havent done experiments with overexpression of tau and autophagy, or lets put it this way, the experiments weve done have not given us any clear-cut answers. The consequence could be cancer and dementia. So we took drugs that had been used for other indications in people and looked to see which of those induced autophagy and identified many of the compounds shown on this slide. And here her group have looked at the brains of Huntingtons disease patients and they showed in the rare juvenile-onset forms of Huntingtons disease you get aggregates of mutant huntingtin in the nucleus; however, you see them outside the nucleus in typical adult-onset Huntingtons disease. For the town to function optimally, it needs to efficiently get rid of waste, to recycle it into new building material and use it for energy production. And, finally, we showed that -synuclein, which is the hallmark protein that accumulates in Parkinsons disease, is also an autophagy substrate. However, the mouse model of Huntingtons disease that weve studied expresses the mutant protein almost exclusively in neurons, so theres no detectable expression in glia, and when we induce autophagy, we reduce the levels of the transgene product. In fact, these first three lanes reflect autophagy-competent cells, the last three lanes reflect autophagy-null cells, and you can see that when you overexpress these kinases you have about the same number of cells with aggregates as in the autophagy-null state. The prediction from studies with this reductionistic system was that 35- and 81-glutamines should bind to Beclin, and 35 should bind less than. As a consequence, misfolded and clumped proteins will not be removed by autophagy, resulting in the death of nerve cells and dementia.


In what stage of Alzheimers disease patients are autophagy-inducing drugs effective? This white paper from Novus provides an overview of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on dysfunctional autophagy and the key molecular factors that link the two. We were delighted to see some previous papers that were consistent with our data, so groups that reported that the decreased Beclin 1 and autophagosome biogenesis data in fibroblasts from patients with Machado-Joseph disease, which is another name for. We next wanted to understand what happened if you have a polyglutamine stretch expansion in ataxin-3 itself, as this causes the disease spinocerebellar ataxia type. Deretic's group from the AIM center for autophagy, inflammation and metabolism studies, provide insight into how cells detect endomembrane damage and what systems are deployed to help repair or eliminate/replace such membranes.


On the other hand, autophagy compromise is frequently seen in neurodegenerative disease conditions and might enhance the aggregate-formation and cell stress. Chauhan,.; Mandell,.; Deretic,. The Journal of Cell Biology. But if you reconstitute with the form of ataxin-3 that autophagy research paper has no glutamines, its like putting nothing back in, its completely dead. And in order to see whether the decrease in the volume of autophagosomes is a consequence of decreased formation of autophagosomes versus increased consumption of the autophagosomes, we then clumped the degradation of autophagosomes using a lysosomal poison called bafilomycin. The next slide now takes diseases which can manifest as Parkinsons disease and shows that these can impact different stages of the autophagic itinerary. Some of the early publications include: Cell available here: (Gutierrez., 2004) m2Fretrieve2Fpii2FS Fshowall3Dtrue and in Science available here: (Singh., 2006). Plos ONE, senior Editor Nicola Stead. Our data suggested that the ability of ataxin-3 to protect Beclin 1 from degradation was a consequence of ataxin-3 binding to Beclin 1, the binding was required to enable ataxin-3 to deubiquitate Beclin 1, and this binding was occurring between. If one takes the cells from these knock-in mice expressing wild-type huntingtin and compares them to mutant huntingtin, you can see the mutant-expressing cells have decreased Beclin levels and have decreased starvation-induced autophagy. Id like to thank everyone for attending today, and Im happy to welcome our featured speaker, Professor David Rubinsztein. We then looked at cells derived from the part of the brain which is most sensitive to the huntingtins mutation, the striatum, and we studied cells from a knock-in mouse model which is basically humanized for. Chan : Another question related to that was how does overexpressing tau, either wild-type or mutant or even aggregate, affect in the autophagy pathway; is it autophagy initiation, flux, or later steps?


Autophagy -dependent ribosomal RNA degradation is essential for

1 2, the AIM center 2 1 aims to promote autophagy research nationally and internationally as well as to develop a cadre of junior faculty along with senior experts in this area to study fundamental mechanisms and how autophagy. In this pathway target proteins are ubiquitinated by a series of enzymes that attach the small protein ubiquitin to lysines on the substrate. In one of these proteins, ataxin-3, we have a toxic function for soluble mutant polyglutamines across many different polyglutamine disease proteins. Huntingtons, as I will tell you much more about later, is the most common of the nine conditions caused by expanded polyglutamine tract mutations. This is associated with dramatically increased ubiquitination of Beclin 1, and this can be explained by the fact that in the in vitro deubiquitination assay this is the control situation, the wild-type ataxin through with the short polyglutamine stretch deubiquitinates very. Too much can be harmful, if it is true that a lack of autophagy cause disease, why can we not just accelerate the autophagy process? Rubinsztein : Im not sure what youre asking. Authors are advised to select the appropriate journal based on each journals scope criteria above. . 8 This has led to the term "secretory autophagy" 9 10 These proteins normally reside in the cytosol but exert their functions extracellularly. When we did this analysis, we found that wild-type ataxin-3 bound Beclin less effectively than the mutant, the mutant binds much more strongly to Beclin. And conversely, if you deplete PI(5)P levels you impair autophagosome biogenesis, and you can rescue that by elevating PI(3)P levels.


I think in stories where there are defects in the itinerary subsequent to the completion of autophagosome formation, one would probably want to do experiments in animal models trying to see whether one could bypass the partial block in the. However, if you reconstitute them with ataxin-3 which is dead in terms of its deubiquitinase activity, then nothing happens. Rubinsztein : So Ana Maria Cuervos done quite a lot of work on the functions of wild-type huntingtin, and Id suggest you try to look through all those papers, and she found roles particularly at the C-terminus of wild-type huntingtin. Finally, Ive talked about work that was done over many years by many people in my lab. And, indeed, for many years it was thought that the aggregates seen in these different diseases might be the toxic entity that is shared across all nine conditions.


Autophagy and Alzheimers - TSE, research, center

Weve shown the same subsequently in Drosophila, zebrafish, and mouse models. When one perturbs the levels of these kinases, one has a dramatic effect on PI(5)P level but very little effect on (4,5)P2 levels because most of the (4,5)P2 pool which is much larger than PI(5)P pool, but. "irgm Governs the Core Autophagy Machinery to Conduct Antimicrobial Defense". We have extended the range of intracellular proteinopathy substrates that are cleared by autophagy to other related neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinsons disease. University of New Mexico. Our view is that the decreased deubiquitinase activity of the mutant ataxin-3 is most likely a consequence of it just being too sticky and not letting go of its substrate effectively enough to be able to cycle effectively. So in the control cells, this is what the level of Beclin 1 is at time 0 and this is the level at time 8 hours, while in the ataxin-3 knockdown cells this is the. A membrane closes around the waste in the cell and forms a unit that is carried to the cells waste station where it is broken down.


Chan : Thank you. One of our autophagy research paper most successful screens was one that used a repurposing library. Autophagy in infection, inflammation and immunity" Nat Rev Immunol 2013 Oct;13(10 722-37. This question was attacked very elegantly by Noboru Mizushima and Masaaki Komatsu, two different Japanese group leaders who conditionally knocked out different autophagy genes in the neurons of mice. Therefore, the factors regulating their clearance are crucial for understanding disease pathogenesis and for developing rational therapeutic strategies. External links edit References edit Vojo, Deretic. Rubinsztein : So I think it is a major player and Id refer people to a very nice paper from Karen Duff and Fred Goldberg in Nature Medicine where they showed that tau mutations impede flux through the. This is primarily explained by the fact that the clean-up provided by autophagy protects us from cancer and other lifestyle diseases. Plos ONE, editorial and Peer Review Information page or the, pLOS Biology, editorial and Peer Review Information page, as relevant.