Lorraine Code expresses a similar view at the meta-scientific level. This objection is an objection to the methodological framework within which these methods have been employed. The actual practice of science thus incorporates socio-political and cultural values and in this way values are part of into the interconnected system of beliefs that is subject to empirical constraint. It can no longer be assumed that, unless formal barriers to access or discriminatory intent can be established, the persistent under-representation and marginalization of women in the sciences must be attributed to factors internal to the women themselves. Thus feminist social scientists bring to their research an awareness of the need to contextualize research. Although micro-inequities in these various areas may each seem trivial, taken individually, they translate into patterns of devaluation and marginalization that amplify through the trajectory of a career. The evidence must also exhibit epistemic independence in two senses: (1) background assumptions used to establish the evidence must be independent of the hypothesis being tested; and (2) background assumptions (linking principles or sets of linking principles) derived. The major academies of science excluded women: Marie Curie (18671934) was denied membership in the French Academie des Sciences in 1911 despite being the first person to win two Nobel Prizes (in 19 the.S. The thesis of situated knowledge is based in the understanding that knowledge is for and by a particular set of socially situated knowers and so is always local a cultural/social/political location characterized by the power relations endemic in such settings. From one feminist in academia to another: You are an inspiration and a trailblazer, and youre going to kick arse. Potter's point is not that Boyle's gas laws are themselves explicitly gendered, but that their formation and ratification as scientific was deeply shaped by the articulation of gender politics and theological commitments specific to 17th century England.
PhD, thesis MIT Discourse, feminism
For Nelson, the distinction between good and bad science is still based on traditional constitutive or epistemic virtues including (though not limited to) empirical adequacy, explanatory power and predictive power. Your thesis will also be available under My Publications on your MyLibrary page. Sandra Harding's (1991) work illustrated that science produces meanings that are constructed. Such emotional experiences can function as evidence for values because these experiences are independent of our desires and ends. However, the science/nature distinction is still being actively explored (Suchman 2008; Barad 2003, 2007; Hammond 2003; Goodman 2003) because it speaks to the boundary between human and machine and addresses the question of difference that has engaged feminist scholarship since its inception. Ruth Hubbard's (1990) work illustrated that science reflects the values of those who do science: privileged, educated white men who have defined what counts as rational/irrational, objective/subjective and pure/constructed. Methods are techniques for gathering evidence, whereas methodology is a theory and analysis of how research should proceed. During the embargo period, your thesis will not be visible online and will not appear in plagiarism-detection software. As articulated by Dorothy Smith in the early 1970s and subsequently elaborated by Harding (1991, 2004a this is a recommendation to take women's everyday lives as a starting point point for research: focus on those aspects of social life and.
The differential distribution of power and differences in interests are closely relatedand thus the questions asked and the features of the world that are relevant to answering those questions vary depending on location as well. The study is based on forty, semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews with a diverse group of German and British women, aged 18-35. Though definitions offered by science scholars differ, they nevertheless agree that the focus of science studies is on the interactions of science with society, including both micro and macro interactions. One recent example is her analysis of research on the hygiene hypothesisthe hypothesis that increased levels of concern about sanitation and the consequent decrease in exposure to micro-organisms and pathogens is related to increasingly high rates of auto-immune disease and allergies. Archaeology provides us with a particularly salient example, for archaeologists must use analytical theories drawn from familiar sources to make hypotheses about past cultures and lifeways and to interpret archaeological data as evidence to test these hypotheses. Across these disciplines, feminist science scholars contribute gender analyses that address such issues as power and inequality, differences among knowers, subjectivity and objectivity, embodiment, work, and the distinction between scientific experts phd thesis feminism and lay-people. The MIT study reports an age-related pattern of gender differences that is corroborated by a growing number of quantitative studies of gender difference in scientists' career trajectories (e.g., Ginther 2004; Sonnert and Holton 1995; Xie and Shauman 2003 small initial differences. But other explanations note that while intentional discrimination still exists, gender discrimination also takes the form of diffuse but persistent differences in the recognition and reward of women's achievements.
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The feminist activism responsible for making breast cancer a primary focus in the war on cancer is one high profile example. They insist that feminist critiques of and contributions to the sciences should be taken seriously precisely because they represent better science, in a traditional sense. These same binaries are no longer the major focus of feminist science studies because the critiques have been mainstreamed into theories on the social construction of science. Some focus chiefly on equity issues, often insisting that gender bias in the institutions of science does not bear on issues of content or method (see the section. Harding addresses the concern about objectivity through what she calls strong objectivity, (see also the section The Feminist Methods Debate ). Although race is more likely to be addressed within feminist than in mainstream science studies, even there it is a nascent area of study. Science is conventionally understood as objective in the sense that scientific work and the results of that work are free of contextual/non-epistemic values,.e., phd thesis feminism moral, social, or political values. More information on long-term data storage is available at the. Tell them upfront what your ideas are, and let them self-select if thats a project they want to commit to, while you decide whether their arsehole:brilliance ratio is to your liking.
Other feminist science studies scholars argue for the social construction of science and aim to show that how we do phd thesis feminism science and how the science we do are both constructed through lenses that are culturally and socially created and that are gendered. Similar ideas are also reflected in substantial shifts of focus in fields like primatology where projected gender norms had given rise to a general vision that primate society revolves around males and is based on aggression, domination, and hierarchy (Strum and Fedigan 2000, 5). In the context of ongoing debate about the status and authority of the evidence of experience (Scott 1991 the second principlethat feminist research start from, and be grounded in, women's experiencehas been reframed as a commitment to treat gendered experience. While individual scientists put forward candidates for knowledge, they do not know their hypotheses autonomously, before the relevant community has deemed the hypotheses confirmed. Another productive tradition of feminist research in this appropriative spirit is characterized by remedial research designed to fill lacunae in established theories or bodies of knowledge, correcting errors that arise from ignoring women and gender without changing the terms of disciplinary engagement. Feminist naturalized philosophy of science, then, attends to processes, including especially methodological processes, reflecting gender considerations. You can submit the thesis (pdf) and the summary (text file) in one of the following ways: - email to - use, sURF Filesender, and send it. These two examples provide an illustration of how case study analysis may be used to work through the role that values can serve in good science and so how the general sorts of insights that holist accounts provide can be made specific. The commitment to accountability leads to the specification of ethical and pragmatic norms for feminist research; these include accountability to research subjects in a variety of ways. All the issues discussed in this essay, from equity critiques to philosophical analysis, are among those included in the field known as feminist sciences studies. The experimental work of cognitive psychologists and social psychologists delineates a set of mechanismsin the form of cognitive schemas and other heuristics that play a role in automatic cognitive processingthat operate below the threshold of conscious awareness, generating patterns. Feminist science scholars continue to respond to Hilary Rose's challenge to create a practice of feeling, thinking and writing that opposes the abstraction of male and bourgeois scientific thought (Rose 1983, 87). For example, Wylie's account of feminist standpoint theory is compatible with her holism discussed.2 The Consilience Model of Confirmation.
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Thus, feminist philosophies of science, exemplified in Section 6, undertake to determine whether and how social values and interests play a positive role in the scientific knowledge production. PhD thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Although social constructivism has been the prevailing theoretical framework for feminist work, Donna Haraway (1991) has cautioned both that it may not be the most powerful tool for deconstructing science and its objects since it may help maintain the ideological. The first is the idea that there are innate sex-linked differences in talent specifically that men typically have better mathematical skills and that these are required for success in stem fields. Thus strong objectivity requires what we can think of as strong reflexivity (Harding 2004a, 136 section Philosophical Implications ). The historical research on women in science suggests that the masculine profile of the sciences, as they have developed in Euro-American contexts in the last 300 years, was by no means monolithic or inevitable. Such a social conception of the knower also provides a path to a political conception of the knower structured by the distribution of power and provides a fuller account of the achievement thesis. The digital copy must include your thesis, your propositions and your thesis front and back covers in one PDF file. The primary evidence for the hypothesis is the correlation between the rates of disease and the hygiene habits in the areas where the rates have increased. Given that the evidence used to support hypotheses and theories about the cultural past is informed by theories based on the cultural present, how can archaeologists avoid begging the question in favor of their own understanding of past cultures? Among the differences that are most salient are those that are in conflict with the interests of the dominant groups.
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The recognition that established scientific methodologies frequently reproduce or generate androcentric and sexist biases has led feminists to ask how to improve their methods. When submitting your thesis, you need to do the following three things:. The PhD supervisory committee is also comprised of three other members, of which at least one must be selected from the list of professors pre-approved for supervising feminist theses. This focus on case studies also calls for alternative analyses of how objectivity is understood. 6.3 Feminist Perspectives on Values in Science Arguably the greatest challenge for feminist science scholars is in showing how feminist values can result in epistemically better science. While it has been standard to distinguish feminist empiricism from feminist standpoint theory since Harding's 1986 categorization of feminist alternatives to traditional epistemology into three typesfeminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernismas we shall see, recent analyses of feminist. Scharff, Christina (2009 young women's dis-identification with feminism: negotiating heteronormativity, neoliberalism and difference. Since the late twentieth century research exploring the role of values in science undertaken by both feminist scholars and those who do not explicitly identify as feminist suggest a more nuanced understanding of how epistemic and non-epistemic values. To illustrate, we focus on just one of these stagesthe way that values enter into understanding the objects of inquiry. Although her point of departure was the delineation of commitments characteristic of feminist research, Longino has developed a set of entirely general arguments for such norms; they ensure that the epistemic resources of diverse perspectives are brought to bear.
Consequently feminist critique anywhere along the spectrum of epistemic attitudes can and has led to more radical re-evaluation of the standards of good science, including questions about the neutrality of method and what is meant phd thesis feminism by the objectivity of science. This sort of persuasive argument is quite common and makes sense only because our emotions are responsive to facts. When sexist assumptions, either directly or projectively, shape the understanding or approach to the objects of inquiry, a variety of distortions of science can occur. Thanks for the A2A. In addition, like many feminists, they argue that a commitment to accountability and reciprocity requires, in the ideal, that research subjects should be involved at all stages of research design, data collection, analysis, and authorship. The third is related to the sorts of micro-inequities described in the MIT study, revolving around the workplace, including both explicit and implicit biases within the workplace and life-work balance issues that are thought to drive women out of stem fields. Science is not separate from the person who does science or from the culture in which science is embedded (Tuana 1989). (My principal supervisor, a 50-something year old dude, actually tries to convince me to use feminist theory. In Nelson's empiricist holism, hypotheses, models and theories put forward in the sciences must be tested against relevant evidence where evidence includes the observational consequences of the hypothesis and a large set of theories within which the hypothesis is embedded, including common-sense theories. Thus we see that even when the subject domain of a science is not intrinsically gendered, as in the case of most natural and life sciences, it may be projectively or symbolically gendered; gendered language and concepts may figure. Taking all the science and engineering disciplines together (the NAS includes social and life sciences, as well as physical science and engineering women have received 25 or more of the PhD's awarded in the sciences for the last thirty.
Although race is more likely to be addressed within feminist than mainstream science studies, much work remains to be done; and finally, feminist disabilities studies now appear with increasing prominence. You can deliver the paper copy to the WUR Library in Forum, Droevendaalsesteeg 2, 6807 PG, Wageningen. You can send an email to to have an embargo placed on your thesis. The MIT study documented systematic differences in such tangibles as salary and merit increments, institutional responses to external job offers, internal support for research, and the allocation of office and laboratory space, as well as more subtle differences in service expectations. They are also addressed by projects designed to foster institutional transformation that have been funded by the National Science Foundation advance program (the Program for the Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers these include a range of strategies for. The title pages of your thesis must list an isbn (International Standard Book Number) on the paper copy and a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) on the electronic version.
Are likely to produce the best theories and if not, suggest changes to ensure that they. 3 pages in Word). Miriam Solomon notes the prevalence of this influence on a variety of contemporary feminist empiricists including herself (2012, 435). While the change in location of an individual automatically brings a different perspective, achievement of a standpoint is not automatic. Feminist science scholars were not alone in questioning the binaries of modernity but they were first to do it for science and their work contributed to a more critical analysis of scientific culture. This thesis adds to our understanding of feminist dis-identification by employing various theoretical tools, drawing on empirical accounts, and by revealing the structuring role of heteronormativity in negotiations of feminism. Sarah Richardson also exposes and explores projective attributions of gender in the ways that stereotypical ideas about male and female traits shape research on chromosomes and sex determination. It follows that a key task for philosophers of science operating from a feminist perspective is reframing accounts of evidence, justification, and objectivity to show how it is possible that non-epistemic values can improve science. Through the 1980s, a growing body of grass-roots, activist research documented what came to be known as the chilly climate for women in academic institutions (Hall and Sandler 1982; The Chilly Collective 1995; Wylie, Jakobsen, Fosado 2008). From the outset, feminists challenged both the specifics of Cole's analysis and the assumptions that informed it noting the difficulty of disentangling the influence of the environment in which women make choices phd thesis feminism from their natural inclinations. For example, Patty Jo Watson and Mary. Sandra Harding (1987) and Helen Longino (1987) argued that there is no justification for positing a distinctive female way of knowing and that it is more fruitful to ask what it means to do science as a feminist (Longino.
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But Wylie points out that empirical adequacy is ambiguous. 6.1 Feminist Empiricist Holism One way in which feminist philosophers of science have responded to these challenges is through an approach that we might call empiricist holism. Ardener 1975, 1 which is to say, women had been taken into account only insofar as they figured, or were valued, in the public languages and worlds of men. Thus, a hypothesis or model in any branch of science is related to many, but not all, of our current theories. Here a reorientation of field observation practices brought into focus the central role played by females in primate societies, and the importance of tactics other than aggression (particularly those that rely on social finesse and the management of relationships. It is epistemically significant that critical reflections on these feminist interventions in the sciences, undertaken internally by practitioners and by external commentators and scholars, suggest that the interests and angle of vision that feminists bring to bear. Among the most frequently cited feminist science scholars are: Ruth Bleier, Adele Clarke, Anne Fausto Sterling, Joan Fujimura, Donna Haraway, Sandra Harding, Evelynn Hammond, David Hess, Ruth Hubbard, Evelyn Fox Keller, Emily Martin, Sue Rosser, Margaret Rossiter, Linda Layne, Richard Levins. We will briefly discuss several different analyses of feminist standpoint theory in the next section. Once the evidence is secure and independent, then archaeologists can triangulate, set up a system of mutual constraint among different lines of evidence bearing on a hypothesis and ultimately on a theory. (2002) has suggested that there are distinctive features of feminist standpoint theory that have not been fully developed.