nutrition in living organisms essay

Below is a brief explanation of nutrition in living organisms essay each of the top level categories: Protein, the first term to be discussed is known as protein. Once this is recognized, so the argument goes, it becomes clear that simple ethical extensionism as outlined above is insufficient to resolve the domination of women and nature. For example, weak individuals and weak species are often killed, eaten and out-competed in an ecosystem. Animals and Ethics ). Adults occur as separate males and females. Johnson, Lawrence., A Morally Deep World: An Essay on Moral Significance and Environmental Ethics, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). If this amendment is made, we can go further and say that no conscious being would be harmed by the trees destruction. Intermediate hosts which physically carry the infective stage from one host to another are also termed vectors ; they are mechanical vectors if they simply transmit the parasite (unchanged and non-multiplied and cyclical vectors if they also function as true intermediate. Unit 7 Assignment 1: Nutrition Kara Graves Breckinridge School of Nursing GE 150 Katy Lunger August 7th, 2014 Proteins are made up of groups of twenty different amino acids. Many parasites complete their developmental cycle in a single host species ( monoxenous life-cycles) while others require multiple host species ( heteroxenous life-cycles).

Modes of, nutrition in Plants and Animals (with diagrams )

For Bookchin, environmental problems are directly related to social problems. Bookchin, Murray, What is Social Ecology? Thus, for Singer it would not be wrong to deny pigs the vote, for obviously pigs have no interest in participating in a democratic society; but it would be wrong to subordinate pigs interest in not suffering, for clearly. This emergence was no doubt due to the increasing awareness in the 1960s of the effects that technology, industry, economic expansion and population growth were having on the environment. Eventually, instead of undergoing further schizogony, merozoites undergo sexual reproduction ( gamogony ) developing into either macrogametocytes (female) or microgametocytes (male). By way of reply to such problems, some philosophers have argued that while we do not know everything about future people, we can make some reasonable assumptions.

Thus, in Singers view it might be legitimate to sacrifice the interests of certain individuals for the sake of the interest-satisfaction of others. According to Callicott, Leopold lies outside of mainstream moral theory. This relates back to the point I made at the beginning of the section: deep ecologists do not call for supplementary moral principles concerning the environment, but an entirely new worldview. Other ecofeminists take a quite different approach to Plumwood and Warren. In instances where you find it difficult to consume healthy foods or you are looking to increase the level of nutrients that you are providing to body, vitamin and mineral supplements are well worth considering. After all, if humans cannot ameliorate the environmental problems we face, is there much point doing environmental ethics in the first place? Silent Spring, first published in 1962, alerted readers to how the widespread use of chemical pesticides was posing a serious threat to public health and leading to the destruction of wildlife. Examples include candy, soft drinks, cake, pie and ice cream. Some have done this by proposing a thought experiment based on a last-human scenario (Attfield, 1983,.

Assignment 3, nutrition Essay - 733 Words

One problem that has been identified with Bookchins social ecology is his extrapolation from the natural world to human society. Derek Parfit has called this the non-identity problem (Parfit, 1984,. Would this individual be wrong to destroy the tree? Tuberculosis nutrition in living organisms essay (mycobacteriosis malaria (plasmodiosis elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis, or filariosis). After all, the environment is not something one can remove oneself from.

This extension has not been to the non-human natural world though, but instead to human beings who do not yet exist. Unfortunately, it faces two key problems: first, just who decides the content and strength of our various community commitments; and second, if human relationships are the closest, does all this lead back to anthropocentrism? Obviously, the detection of patency depends on the sensitivity of the test being used to identify the organism. Traditional ethics, Plumwood argues, promote reason as capable of providing a nutrition in living organisms essay stable foundation for moral argument, because of its impartiality and universalizability. Running a marathon requires the use of your aerobic energy system. In other cases, serology may be even less adequate, for the simple reason that a test has not been developed, and the infection is known as cryptic. The interval between exposure to infection and the onset of illness is known as the incubation, latent or pre-patent period or phase. Social Ecology Social ecology shares with deep ecology the view that the foundations of the environmental crisis lie in the dominant ideology of modern western societies. Specific disciplines focus on specific aspects, thus parasitological knowledge may be fragmentary. This, of course, is perfectly natural and even fits in with ecologys characterization of nature as interconnected. In turn then, human societies and human relations with nature can be informed by the non-hierarchical relations found within the natural world.

Environmental Ethics, internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Purists argue that -osis belongs to species names derived from Greek, while those with Latin parentage deserve -iasis (it becomes tricky if you dont know the names origins). Thus, the question is not, what quality does the land possess that makes it worthy of moral standing? After copulation, females produce fertile eggs, each containing an embryo. For example, consider a cat that needs worming. A deficit of these essential fatty acids, like mine, can result in change on a cellular level. While still others have conceded that although any future generation cannot do anything for us, it can nevertheless act for the benefit of its own subsequent generations, thus pointing to the existence of a broader transgenerational reciprocity (Gewirth, 2001). Secondly, and of particular importance for environmental ethics, how could any future people legitimately complain that they have been wronged by our environmentally destructive policies?

In effect then, Regan proposes that there are moral limits to what one can do to a subject-of-a-life. This interdependence and lack of hierarchy in nature, it is claimed, provides a blueprint for a non-hierarchical human society (Bookchin, 2001). Only by doing this, such thinkers argue, can we get nutrition in living organisms essay the beyond narrow and selfish interests of humans, and treat the environment and its inhabitants with the respect they deserve. Consuming foods that are natural, unprocessed, and free of chemicals and pesticides, a person will begin to consume the types of nutrients needed by the body into the body. Self-administered survey allows enough time for participants to complete the survey. For these thinkers, all animal-centered ethics suffer from two fundamental and devastating problems: first of all, they are too narrowly individualistic; and secondly, the logic of animal ethics implies unjustifiable interference with natural processes. According to the ADA, acsm and DC, an endurance athlete needs.2-1.4g per kilogram of protein per day. However, the organisms still must be identified initially on their morphology, and this is the basis of most parasite diagnoses made in clinical pathology laboratories. Complains of symptoms (subjective, felt by the patient) which interfere with normal life, and perhaps manifests clinical signs (objective, detectable by the doctor always with psychosocial undertones and ramifications. Warren has argued that the dualisms of rationalist thought, as outlined by Plumwood, are not in themselves problematic.

These moral limits are rights, and are possessed by all creatures who are subjects-of-a-life. Woodward, James, The Non-Identity Problem, Ethics, 96 (July, 1986 804-831. In short, it is argued that ethical extensionism remains too human-centered, because it takes human beings as the paradigm examples of entities with moral standing and then extends outwards to those things considered sufficiently similar. According to a human or animal-centered ethic, it is hard to see why such destruction would be wrong. Carbohydrates, carbohydrates have received an increase in publicity with the advent of the Atkins Diet fad. Information is therefore fragmentary and many ambiguities exist. An infection occurs when an organism,.e. Infections with parasites are often indicated by the abbreviated genus name plus the suffix - osis. Parasitological parameters Parasitic infections can be studied from many angles: we can focus on the parasites, their hosts, the environments they share and the ways in which they interact. In addition, it enables Penton Media to maximize participation as subscribers could include more. With many parasitic infections in endemic areas, these definitions may be of little use clinically, because people are repeatedly being exposed to infection.

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What is the connection between nutrition and nutrition in living organisms essay health? Rolston III, Holmes, Duties to Endangered Species, Bioscience, 35 (1985 718-726 Sagoff, Mark, Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce, Osgoode Hall Law Journal 22, 2 (1984 297-307. For example, many of us will be familiar with the problems rabbits have caused to ecosystems in Australia. This latter point illustrates Bookchins optimistic view of humanitys potential. Eckersely, Robyn, Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward an Ecocentric Approach, (London: UCL Press, 1992). Sub-speciation or strain-typing is less well-developed, and may depend on molecular configurations or host-specificity. Clinical and pathological considerations While, by definition, a parasite should evoke a host reaction, there need not be any obvious adverse effects because, in the great majority of cases, infected individuals exhibit little evidence of disease. Though they are also dairy products, ice cream is typically. In other words, even if Leopolds accounts of the land and its energy flows are correct, why should we preserve it?

For if we had not conducted such policies, they would not even exist. However, their development may be considered external, as they usually reside outside the host on the surface. Many examples of missing links in parasite evolution can still be found today; although far more are well-and-truly extinct. However, ecofeminism is a broad church, and there are actually a number of different positions that feminist writers on the environment have taken. For as we have seen above, such thinkers believe that relying on the sentiments and feelings of individuals is too unstable a foundation upon which to ground a meaningful ethical framework. Nutrition is the total of all processes involved in the taking in and using food substances for proper growth, functioning, and maintenance of health. However, several philosophers have offered sophisticated arguments to support the view that moral standing should be extended to include animals (see. First of all, it is not at all clear that all conflicts of interest will be resolved by the adoption of the appropriate state of consciousness.

The roundworm of the nutrition in living organisms essay human small intestine, Ascaris lumbricoides, has counterparts in pigs, dogs, cats, flying foxes, elephants, dolphins and many other mammals. Rather they must propose alternative and better means of resolving the problems we face. However, perhaps principles are not important, as both Naess and Fox have claimed. Indeed, the over-abundance of individuals of a particular species of animal can pose a serious threat to the normal functioning of an ecosystem. There remain two crucial challenges facing philosophers who attribute moral standing to individual living organisms that have not yet been addressed. For this reason, a number of philosophers have come up with arguments to justify assigning moral standing to individual living organisms.

For example, on the one hand, Naess offers us eight principles that deep ecologists should accept, and on the other he claims that deep ecology is not about drawing up codes of conduct, but adopting a global comprehensive attitude. There is no doubt that infectious organisms exert a powerful and continuous evolutionary pressure on host populations (and vice versa). For one thing, in its refusal to reject so many worldviews and philosophical perspectives, many have claimed that it is difficult to uncover just what deep ecology advocates. Recognizing our wider Self thus involves identifying ourselves with all other life forms on the planet. Of course, to what extent this is a problem depends on ones point of view. For Bookchin, an all powerful centralized state is just another agent for domination. In light of this, perhaps our obligations lie with these interests, rather than the future individuals themselves (DesJardins, 2001,. For example, the two common amoebae of the human colon, Entamoeba histolytica and,. On the other hand, infections with parasites that are poorly adapted to humans (e.g. While numerous philosophers have written on this topic throughout history, environmental ethics only developed into a specific philosophical discipline in the 1970s. Tom Regan takes issue with Singers utilitarian ethical framework, and uses the criterion of consciousness to build a rights-based theory. Barry thus argues that our obligations lie with ensuring that we do not prevent future generations from meeting their basic needs.

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When multi-cellular organisms with alimentary tracts appeared, they would have inevitably (accidentally or intentionally) eaten free-living micro-organisms (and, later, free-living helminths). In order to preserve the relations within the land, Leopold claims that we must move towards a land ethic, thereby granting moral standing to the land community itself, not just its individual members. This is summarized as follows: Where you start in the above sequence depends on whether you are the parasite or the patient! But he also denies that nature exists solely for the purposes of humans. Parasitic diseases In the field of infectious diseases, it is conceptually important not to confuse aetiological agents with their effects on the host.

The minute parasitic protozoa that multiply in host cells have much in common with viruses, so that host responses to these infections and the resulting diseases can be so similar that, clinically, they may be indistinguishable. Good nutrition depends on a regular and balanced diet, because we need to feed our cells not only the quantities but also the right variety for its healthy nutrition in living organisms essay function. Nutrition ( aliment ) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary, in the form of food (in the case of people) to support life. This section examines the prominent accounts of moral standing within environmental ethics, together with the implications of each. Capacity to induce disease, including the inter-related factors of invasiveness (motility, enzyme secretion, presence of specific tissue receptors, induction of phagocytosis fecundity (rate of producing offspring means of egress from host, stimulation and/or suppression of immunity and inflammation, production. Either can be used, depending on which sounds better (although a recent international convention aims to standardize all this and we must be tolerant of the many exceptions,.g. Good health is largely dependent. The resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present. The following headings have proven useful.

Nutritional Requirements of Older People

In light of this, once it is recognized that we have environmental obligations, all areas of ethics are affected, including just war theory, domestic distributive justice, global distributive justice, human rights theory and many others. In similar arguments to Regans, Taylor claims that because living organisms have a good of their own, they have inherent value; that is, value for their own sake, irrespective of their value to other beings. It is not too difficult to conceptualize how complex life-cycles, utilizing a range of different hosts, might have arisen. Of course, this simply begs the question: when is absolutely necessary? Nevertheless, surveys need a good planning, which would ultimately lead to an excellent analysis. We could argue about whether the mosquito genus Anopheles or the primate species Homo sapiens is the definitive host for malaria parasites as gamogony in initiated in the human but culminates in fertilization in the mosquito. Ingested animals that managed to survive in this new environment would have appreciated the nutrient-rich environment; energy saved in looking for food could then be diverted to proliferating and resisting the hosts efforts to dislodge them. Tapeworms and most flukes are the exceptions ( hermaphrodites ).

An epidemic occurs when the incidence of new cases significantly exceeds the usual rate; if the disease is protracted, this will be reflected by an increase in prevalence as well. It can be measured only by monitoring a population over a sufficient period or time ( longitudinal study) and determining the rate increase or decrease (difference in prevalence over time). Second, the basic interests of nonhuman living entities should take priority over the nonbasic or trivial interests of humans. (59 kg) Major goal: Complete the Scotiabank Toronto Waterfront Marathon in October 14, 2014 Section 1b: Physiology Background Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Rest/XT (cross-train) Walk for 30min or XT on a bike or elliptical. Fields of study, medical Parasitology is the study of those organisms which parasitize humans. Others define the latent period as the time from exposure to the first occurrence of recognizable specific manifestations, be they symptoms, signs, positive serology or other laboratory findings; if for symptoms, then it is called the incubation period. Incidence refers to the number of new cases acquired per unit of population per unit of time, and is more meaningful for acute, short events (incidents with an identifiable beginning (or end!).g. Plumwood, Val, Nature, Self, and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy, and the Critique of Rationalism, Hypatia 6, 1 (Spring, 1991 3-27. According to Warren, just such a logic of domination has been prevalent within western society. Dairy, also called milk products and sometimes categorized with milk alternatives or meat, is typically a smaller category in nutrition guides. Radical Ecology Not all philosophers writing on our obligations concerning the environment see the problem simply in terms of extending moral standing.

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Virtually all population studies have shown that the intensity of infection does not follow a normal distribution, but exhibits an aggregated or over-dispersed pattern: a small number of hosts harbour most of the parasites, whereas most individuals carry few or no parasites. For even if I identify myself with all living things, some of those things, such as bacteria and viruses, may still threaten me as a discrete living organism. Thus, the flow of energy relies on a complex structure of relations between living things. The flourishing of non-human life requiresa smaller human population. My client works 10pm until closing time which is usually around 12-1am. The most famous Food Guidance is the Food Pyramid.

Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. The thought experiment asks us to consider a situation, such as the aftermath of a nuclear holocaust, where the only nutrition in living organisms essay surviving human being is faced with the only surviving tree of its species. Animal-centered ethics also face attack for some of the implications of their arguments. Gewirth, Alan, Human Rights and Future Generations in Boylan, Michael (ed. ONeill, Onora, Environmental Values, Anthropocentrism and Speciesism, Environmental Values 6,.

Indeed, some have claimed that animal liberation cannot even be considered a legitimate environmental ethic (Callicott, 1980, Sagoff, 1984). Baird; Sessions, George; Warren, Karen.; and Clark, John (eds. Nutrition Analysis Essay.use all of the carbohydrates as fuel, the liver converts it into fats and deposited in the body. In other words, the differences between individuals, and thus their different interests, should be taken into account. This position stands in contrast to Singer who feeds all interests into the utilitarian calculus and bases our moral obligations on what satisfies the greatest number. and they must be satisfied with their diet (host intestinal contents, blood and/or tissues). For example we need to walk, eat, shelter and clothe ourselves, all of which will usually involve harming living things. The data available within this category of our website is a collection of the most up-to-date, relevant, and researched information that science can offer on the topic of nutrition. Therefore, in epidemiological studies of macro-parasitic infections, their intensity becomes important, in addition to incidence and prevalence. But while Naess regards those who subscribe to these statements as supporters of deep ecology, he does not believe it to follow that all such supporters will have the same worldview or ecosophy. Likewise, each population of parasites is heterogeneous, so some individuals succumb very easily if in the wrong host (losers) whereas others persist and may come close to full development (pioneers).

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Coli, have almost identical relatives within a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Record of Food Intake DAY Breakfast: 2 Eggs 2 Slices Bacon Slice Toast Coffee Lunch: Turkey Sandwich Diet Pepsi Dinner: Cheeseburger Lettuce Pickle Tomato Exercise: None DAY Breakfast: 2 Eggs Tomato. For example, imagine that it is proven that a particular set of painful experiments on half a dozen pigs will lead to the discovery of some new medicine that will itself alleviate the pain of a few dozen human beings (or other sentient animals). Warren, Mary Anne, Moral Status: Obligations to Persons and Other Living Things, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Epidemiology This is the descriptive and analytical study of how diseases or infective organisms are nutrition in living organisms essay distributed in human populations. However, for Regan there are moral limits to what one can do to an entity with inherent value, irrespective of these overall consequences. Not surprisingly, all parasitic animals have free-living counterparts to which they are clearly related, and the greatest diversity of parasites is still found within the alimentary tracts of higher animals. My client also attends college monday to thursday, where she leaves her house at 7am to walk to the bus stop to catch the college bus and returns home at 5:30pm. For writers such as Plumwood, however, emphasizing womens naturalness in this way simply reinforces the dualism that led to womens oppression in the first place. We carry our excess weight in the form of fat (Trefil Hazen, 2013). The development of disease depends on both host factors ( susceptibility / resistance ) and parasite factors ( pathogenicity / virulence ). Intermediary hosts may be optional in some helminth life-cycles; the parasite might not undergo essential development in them, although it may increase in size.

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In the nutrition in living organisms essay case of helminths and arthropods, which are generally visible macroscopically as discrete individuals, the number of organisms is meaningful, because it can be measured and does influence the likelihood or severity of disease. However, other philosophers have pointed to the fact that it is usually considered uncontroversial that we have obligations to the dead, such as executing their wills and so on, even though they cannot reciprocate (Kavka, 1978). Simple carbohydrates are mainly found in foods containing sugars and complex carbohydrates are found in potatoes, pastas, and grains. Instead, they claim that we must rely on the fostering of the appropriate states of consciousness. Amino acids cannot be stored in the body, so we need to eat foods regularly that contain the essential amino acids. Finally, environmental ethics will of course be informed by our scientific understanding of the environment. This involves reexamining who we are as human beings and our place within the natural world. Many environmental ethicists disagree, and are convinced that the boundaries of our ethical concern need to be pushed back further. While the overall knowledge of nutrition and it's correlation to living a healthy and disease free life are becoming more and more widespread, recent studies have statistically shown that a record number of Americans are nutritionally deficient. Carbohydrates come in two main types complex and simple carbohydrates. The energy source will be coming from glycogen, fats and proteins. But does that mean we are under an obligation to protect the richness and diversity of the natural world? Of course, pollution and the depletion of natural resources have not been the only environmental concerns since that time: dwindling plant and animal biodiversity, the loss of wilderness, the degradation of ecosystems, and climate change are.

Presence of infective organisms in the environment,.g. For example, because my interest in having a pretty garden is nonbasic, and a weeds interest in survival is basic, I am forbidden from pulling it out according to Taylors ethical framework. Our ignorance of such matters makes it very difficult to flesh out the content of our obligations. Jamieson, Dale, Animal Liberation is an Environmental Ethic, Environmental Values, 7/1 (1998 41-57. Well, in one obvious sense animal welfare is relevant to environmental ethics because animals exist within the natural environment and thus form part of environmentalists concerns. Whether such a radical shift in the way we think about ourselves and the environment is possible, remains to be seen. Emotion, on the other hand, lacks these characteristics, and because it is based on sentiment and affection makes for shaky ethical frameworks. It is generally assumed that, the longer a parasite and its host species have co-evolved,.e. To illustrate this point, James Woodward gives the example of a racist airline refusing to allow a black man on a flight that subsequently crashes (Woodward, 1986). Lipids contain a variety of molecules that do not dissolve in water. The obvious benefit to the parasite is that its host provides, gratis, a relatively stable, nourishing home.