A list of cookbook instructions, or the "Turing Table or even as a state machine (i.e. Also there's a parallel to the question: "Does the tree falling in the woods make a noise when no one is there to hear it?". As for the Moore machine point (next state equals current state plus input, and the only "indicator" of what the machine's doing is the current state) iirc a Moore machine doesn't ever really "terminate it just loops through. This is definitely not orginal research. If no writers or editors can get to this I will eventually. What this has **input process output definition in thesis** to do with "algorithm" is unclear. In this case the state machine would have a "gas-low" state with a conditional-arrow looping back to this "gas-low" state plus an escape-arrow to a "ready-to-fire" state.

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I can say the sentence is there trying to give important context and concepts to relate algorithms with computing. I can't see anybody else arguing that the definition of an algorithm is ambiguous apart from you. Give references to other pages and do not write more than simple paragraph about all those different formalisations here. Do you have an opinion re whether or not an algorithm is "a machine/man" in operation, or whether it is just a list of instructions? A number of folks have contributed to the debate, and to the definitions. I can do either; the register-machine is easier to understand. Shaw 02:02, 5 November 2007 (UTC). Please answer both of these points as you have dodged them a couple of times. Your idea of adding a section to the end with more CS-centric info seems like a good way to go about this.

#### Talk:ChurchTuring thesis - Wikipedia

So why should the article not have a CS bias, rounded out with information from other fields? Tesson 14:19, (UTC) Oppose Merge. As someone with a PhD in this field I think the article is a terrible mess. I disagree at this time. Now we all know all of these formalisations are same as or similar to concept of algorithm. Turings notion here is of the output region of the tape as being external to the algorithm (i.e.

Thanks, wvbailey Wvbailey 17:15, 4 February 2007 (UTC) Well, you are right. As one choice of the objective, we can ask that the theory should give us an effective means for deciding, for any given one of the propositions which are taken as values of the predicate, whether that propostion is true or false. Speaking about "formal structures" is another topic. As does verious sections of the article (patents, etc). You have to specify the machine and its language/syntax, parameters etc. Everybody knows what it means to say that two computer programs are the same, or are different, as programs. If not in a few days I'll move it there and retitle it similar to the above suggestion. As the Ale2006 entry indicates. I may add this to algorithm characterizations : "Computation does not name an intrinsic feature of reality but is observer-relative, and this is because computation is defined in terms of symbol manipulation, but the notion of a 'symbol'. ) NOT_is_doorway: goto is_raining? The input-process-output (IPO) model, or input-process-output pattern, is a Widely used approach in systems analysis and software engineering for Describing the structure of an information processing program or other processes. .

He is asking the question: where is the information? You, apparently, are quite sure you know the definition. It is only the sections that have been rewritten in the body of the article that make this less clear by claiming there is some debate over what an Algorithm. I think there are several issues. Axbyc is solvable for x and. However, it is quite easy to show an "improper division" algorithm on said Turing machine (however constructed) that performs incorrectly when confronted by division. The hypothesized equivalence of these formulations is called the Church-Turing thesis. 1-9) is required; a footnote isn't necessary. Droste effect 23:48, 4 November 2007 (UTC) I don't think so; there's just a simple way to convert Tail recursion to iteration.

#### MCA VI Project Details, input output

The concept was formalized in 1936 through Alan Turing's Turing machines and Alonzo Church's lambda calculus, which in turn formed the foundation of computer science. Fewest logic nand gates necessary to build it) is the Turing version; whereas the "sequential" form implies the "successor function" of the Peano axioms (e.g. What this article does is trying to do is survey the field. (Nachum Dershowitz and Yuri Gurevich, A Natural Axiomatization of Churchs Thesis, ) Observe that they say nothing about output; output is (apparently?) reflected in the state currently occupied. Minds) can bring "meaning" to an otherwise meaningless syntactic event (or process or symbolic-expression) called "an algorithm". What do people think?

And added some more to the algorithm article. For the specifics you'll naturally have to follow the links, but I don't understand what's esoteric or tangential here. This is why the definition of algorithm is non-trivial. This is why a single definition of "algorithm" is still unsettled. But Knuth's is the most "famous" and well-known and should stay here.) wvbailey Wvbailey 16:08, (UTC) Result In this edit, the section ChurchTuring thesis#Algorithms disappeared. I also edited it down some. Indeed, as described by Turing in his first proof (1936-7 his "a-machine" had no "halt" instruction (but this notion did appear in Post 1936 his a-machine (programmed to be a universal machine) just went on and on producing numbers. Thus an algorithm can be its own observer and thereby give meaning to itself!

Start: 1 clear C, go to step 2, ; 0 - C 2 clear D, go to step 3, ; 0 - D 3 IF NC then go to step 5 move else go to step. But the best example would be a hybrid of both machines (a P-T machine equipped with one register functioning like an accumulator) because the register machine uses "numbers" and the P-T machine uses unary coding - so we can. Where is the vast majority of the common usage of the term and related concepts. The machine models limit the efficiency of any possible algorithm. On the other hand, Turing's forcing constraint was the finite memory of his human computer: "For the present I shall only say that the justification of his definition of computatable numbers lies in the fact that the human memory is necessarily limited.". Or is an external observer required to bring their extrinsic "meaning" to the algorithm? Recycle this new number N (i.e. But because of our wide assortment of readers, of varying experience levels, these fussy constraints narrow our possible choices of examples. And it would be good to use symbols and terminology derived from some prevalent, accessible text (e.g. I don't particularly like the article's "example". Whatever "style" you see is probably 40 years old). A crow) with adequate auditory apparatus (ears and a functional hearing appartus) to receive the compression waves, and a mind suitable to the task of recognizing the auditory event as "loud scary noise" (Yikes!

To restore this article to it former quality it is necessary to stop the endless circling around whether or not we know what an algorithm. It may not be the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth (e.g. Shaw 03:20, 11 February 2007 (UTC) This new section is misplaced - placed as it is early in the article it has too much prominence especially given the fact that it's just one philosopher's opinion. More often than not algorithm will have a restricted "domain" of input over which it "functions correctly if the input is outside that 'domain' the algorithm should say "woops" and halt with an error message (e.g. A(1) B(7 c(1) D(-1 parameters overlays constants, parameters have greater precedence than any constants. The bulk of it gives a definition of an algorithm. This article should not have the detail needed in the other.

#### Implementation of DCA Compression Method - PDF

Suppose the little man lives on that desert down in Chile? This article was used to be so nice to explain what algorithm is, and its brief history and list various algorithms and fundamentals. Until we can locate it, we can't put it into Wikipedia. Here is "Division by repeated decrement At the start, N starting number to be divided; at the end, N 0, Q"ent, R remainder (residue D divisor. Your point of view has merit, but it is a point of view; it is not fact. An algorithm determines a sequence of computational states for each valid input. If there were a common definition for "algorithm then the article could be simplified. Symbols and mechanical devices, telephony etc. The problem of "output" arises when the machine is under observation by an external-to-the-machine observer (machine #2, algorithm #2, person, etc). Output is either for the benefit of another (machine #2, algorithm #2, person, etc or because machine #1 wants to make something happen using another (machine #2, algorithm #2, person, etc) as an agent. Such things as partial function come to light, as well. A good example of what this article could be is Physics which uses the main page more as a first step and history that as a complete treatment of the subject.

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It doesn't serve the article to pretend that such a definition has been given. About the bias on the page, I didn't mean to imply that the page should soley be about the CS viewpoint of an algorithm. It is easy to tell whether two programs are the same - you just compare them. This is serious stuff, this definition of algorithm. Wvbailey Knuth seems to waffle, as does everyone else I've encountered. But in all cases there's an observer, and the observer is bringing "meaning" to the behavior of the output pins. Since the reference to Knuth's work is already on the page only an in-text reference such as (Knuth 1973. But I'm not sure about exactly what Gurevich is saying; I'm still reading on this. The idea of algorithmic termination appears as early as Hilbert's Diophantine equation Problem 10 (1900 "To devise a process according to which it can be determined in a finite number of operations whether the equation is solvable in rational integers". CMummert 12:24, (UTC I don't know too much about complexity theory.

Goal(feel_rain) output (, arm_R:outstretch, hand_R:hand_open, balance:upright, eyes:upward) input (, arm_R, hand_R, leg_L, leg_R, balance, eyes) case(., right_hand_is_dry, right_hand_is_wet. "contents of memory n" "contents of A" - A) and we use it in an algorithm to calculate powers (e.g. On the problem of simultaneity see Marc Lange The Philosophy of Physics: Locality, Fields, Energy, and Mass (Blackwell Publishers, 2002). Information systems input-process-output, IPO, leave a Comment. For details see Knuth.7-9 and his reference to Markov). g'day, I've got basic maths and computing skills and I don't know exactly what is meant by "isomorphic" in this r the lay people a clarification would be great! Many computer theory books like Sipser use such high level abstraction for solving many problems. I had a dialog with Yuri Gurevich (he's at Microsoft as a senior fellow) re this issue: the definition of "algorithm". You may touch this lightly in one paragraph somewhere, expression algorithm is varied based on the situation and application. Okay, lets agree that it is a valid algorithm and take away the tape and the printing. They take more time than they appear to be worth) and not knowing/understanding what utility they have I have been inclined to ignore them.

#### Input - process - output, archives

Remove the section on termination which is very poor, and completely irrelevant to this page. As a separate point, recursive function theory probably means computability theory which overlaps with Turing machines. But no, it does not "make a sound" until there's a sentient observer (e.g. The final entry about Blass is straying into original research. As this page covers the historical progression of the term, as well as its current meaning __input process output definition in thesis__ then it makes sense to refer to work from the 50s before complexity theory and other developments, when the term had a more general meaning. (I was wandering about the relation between causality and time, but I'm a programmer so I know what an algorithm.) Algorithm characterizations is quite difficult for common readers, thus I perceived a discontinuity. I would suggest to read the article from common reader point of view, or ask opionion of common readers. Eventually, the little man (before going back out, he can go pee and eat when he needs to, we allow him this) either "produces an object" or not. All this ambiguity - and some of the current opinions - needs to be emphasized in the article (with in-text citations to the authors of the opinions). Wvbailey 19:10, 8 September 2006 (UTC) Writing a paragraph of history here and moving to another page like "algorithm evolution" is okay in my opinion, but I also do not object your present format of moving the detailed. Unless all power were removed to the torch, this could result in a hazardous "cap-off-but-armed" situation - if the operator were to accidentally push the torch's "start" push-button he could be electrocuted. It would seem that the observer is bringing something to the party - an interpretation of "the meaning" of "the output". For example: I could" Gurevich (and why not?

They are shorter but at the expense of having to specify "the next move". I created a new page for that one but its just a skeleton).Lemme know. I don't think it makes sense to merge Algorithm and Church-Turing thesis, because that merges two out of three important ideas, viz: The, **input process output definition in thesis** church-Turing thesis says that any algorithm can be implemented on a, turing machine. The reader needs to know that this is a difficult topic: that there are serious issues having to do with the notions of "quality - goodness, best with the capabilities and knowledge of the machine/person, with whether. It will produce 1's and numbers and u's,.g. Wvbailey Wvbailey 22:21, (UTC) Termination I've had a professor or two question the proposition that an algorithm necessarily must be defined as terminating at/in a given state. First, go to Talk:Division by zero and look at the example that I posted there - it uses a Shepherdson-Sturgis counter machine to calculate Q INT(N/X). Wvbailey Wvbailey 14:21, (UTC) I am willing to wait for you to get back home so that you can spend some time on this. I am very perplexed: you say everyone knows what the definition is, and yet you" Gurevich as having an alternate definition and probing the concept.

If the unconditional goto is back to 1, then we visualize a little man running outside, checking and seeing no rain, going inside, running outside, checking, ad infinitum. There are no issues about the language that algorithms are specified *input process output definition in thesis* in (as psuedo code is normally used again this is a confusion with programs. A Turing machine - both table and tape - or a mind not just a list of instructions (i.e. See the improvements requested for the page. A good example is the the "multiply algorithm" (it executes Peano's definition of multiplication with two recursive loops in the simplest form) using a Register machine or Post-Turing machine. For instance, if the example comes from mathematics, it should use really simple arithmetic - no more than, x and maybe divisionand really simple concepts. I realise that this is roundabout and lengthy prose after a while and go to next search results. Imply?) the notion of observer (aka machine #2, algorithm #2, person, etc). In particular, the history of Church's thesis and its various forms are not relevant to the Algorithm article. The instructions needn't be in a sequence. Down to the tiniest of details. Moschovakis comes of his corner flatly stating the issue: Algorithm machine or specification, or what exactly?

#### Talk:Algorithm/Archive 2 - Wikipedia

That is, the state of the system may be described by a single expression (sequence of symbols). The transitions from state to state in computational sequences are governed by some finite description. That it covers just the Church-Turing thesis#Algorithms section. Is it having an experience? In the second example, an "extension" to the frist algorithm requires the machine to produce a non-zero object in the place "Y". But all we will see will be more complaint. If the counting is *input process output definition in thesis* slow enough a human observer can use a voltmeter to probe the pins (e.g. And one thing we have is to avoid is "original research". However, if you count the extra "memory" required if the "next address(s is/are in the list of instructions, the "most primitive" is not so obvious. The move to "archive" has rendered this work invisible. I moved the content to a separate section, which is where it should have been all along.

But most agree that algorithm has something to do with defining processes for the creation of "output" integers from other "input" integers - "input parameters" arbitrary and infinite in extent, or limited in extent but still variable - by the manipulation. Does anyone else object to this change in the wording? The observer dilemma rather reminds me of the issues raised by Schroedinger's famous feline thought experiment: quantum mechanics says that a state isn't truly defined until an observer causes the state "waveform" to collapse into a definite. Wvbailey Wvbailey 19:16, 25 February 2007 (UTC) Complete But Not Clear I think this article could use some revamping so that it's size isn't so intimidating. It does not require a citation, because as I've pointed out the definition is unchanged across hundreds of textbooks and thousands of papers. Operating system __input process output definition in thesis__ never terminates, but its actions based on current input are decidable.

Not that I'd want to stop you from improving the article, just to give another view. Algorithms often have steps that repeat (iterate) or require decisions (such as logic or comparison). This would make a good separate section as it is additional to the information already in the page. The wordings are different, but meaning is same. As an encylopedia page it adds a richness to show where the ideas originated from, and how they interact with work in other disciplines. This will go on ad infinitum, or until the Collatz machine doesn't halt because it cannot reduce the number to 1 - at this point we want the supervisor to write 0, really_big_number and then halt (meaning: "Yeay! The previous layout of the page used Knuth as a basis. See the archived discussion section for my dialog re recent Uspensky-Gurevich papers. Later he gives his "computer" the opportunity to write down a note and thereby "It is always possible for the computer to break off from his work, to go away and forget all about it, and later to come back and go on with. If we convert this to a machine-algorithm, we can get away with a counter machine (using decrement register, increment register, and jump IF register is zero, and maybe ADD and copy to make things easier).

#### Turing machine - Wikipedia

That what Kleene was referring to is what we would now call a program, rather than an algorithm. Press, 2000 and I could swear that I read an article (or a chapter of something) that reports an exhaustive look at all forms of "before" and "after" when applied to two events happening (something on the order. There are probably as many properly-constructed "division algorithms" as there are people who can dream them up, and more than likely the "data" as presented to one machinealgorithm will not work when presented to another machinealgorithm (hence the "language problem. with "logicism versus intuitionism versus formalism".e. Suppose he cannot remember more than the last 6 or 7 times, does this mean __input process output definition in thesis__ the algorithm fails? To reassure us, the Supervisor could write an output after every success.g. Program counter) and everything on the tape. Adam McCormick 00:44, (UTC) I hear you. Also, as I recall, the references are mixed in style, some done with templates and some without. Amoss 13:31, (UTC) Of course you are entitled to your opinion, but that opinion is not necessarily correct. Must an algorithm exhibit "an object"?

Wvbailey **input process output definition in thesis** Wvbailey 14:21, (UTC) that is arguing this point, and others on this discussion page seem to have been argued down when they made the same claims about the term Algorithm being in common usage. If anything this article does make it clear that a "program" and an "algorithm" are not the same thing. The Church-Turing thesis article just needs to be rewritten to take full advantage of the existing articles for algorithm and Turing machine. I've quickly looked up Blass's research and it not indicative of the common usage of Algorithm. Thats one thing - and its not a special feature of algorithms or logic. CMummert seems to disagree with the following) but the"s are facts - as in "attributable statements ".Turing's informal argument in favor of his thesis justifies a stronger thesis: every algorithm can be simulated by a Turing machine" (Gurevich. Wvbailey Wvbailey 17:33, (UTC) improving intro Upon reading the intro, the second sentence caught me as way too esoteric and tangential for an intro: "The computational complexity and efficient implementation of the algorithm are important in computing, and this depends on suitable.

#### Super-recursive algorithm - Wikipedia

I also feel that the number of inset direct"s should be reduced. There are indeed, for use in machine learning, "evolutionary" algorithms that use lots of "parents randomness and "survival of the fittest" (i.e. Wvbailey 05:10, (UTC) merger from Church-Turing thesis, oppose merge. "Turing Table in operation. He could have used a two-tape Turing machine that would write-only the 1s and 0s to the 2nd tape). Their definition starts with keyword fun followed by its name and arguments list in parenthesis. To that point, one thought would be to offer up a number of definitions, or at least one with its own section for computer science. Mlpkr mlpkr 3:06, 18 December 2006 (UTC) But I can easily write a viable algorithm that goes on ad infinitum. A second example: such machines are equipped with one or more gas pressure switches that, if the pressure(s) dropped too low, caused the machine to go to a cyclic "halt-like" polling state; the state machine would poll the.